CINEMA IN KARNATAKA

The Film industry in Karnataka has a history of over six decades. In their early phase, films produced in Karnataka were only based on themes from the Kannada Theatre. The first ‘Mooki’ (silent) film was produced and directed by Mohan Bhavanani with Yenakshi Rama Rao, Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaya, T.P. Kailasam, O.K. Nanda and other and it had the title ‘Mrichchakatika’. During the 1930s two Bombay Industralists, Haribhai R. Desai and Bhogial Dave established the first studio of Southern Indian in Bangalore named Surya Film Company and made about 40 silent films in about four years. During 1929, with the co-operation of Devudu Narasimha Sastri, Gubbi Veeranna and Algod of Belgium, an organisation named ‘Karnataka Pictures Corporation’ was established through which silent movies ‘Harimaya’, ‘Song of Life’ and ‘His Love Affair’ were produced. ‘Sadarame’, (1935), ‘Hemareddy Mallamma’ (1945), ‘Gunasagari’, ‘Bedara Kannappa’ (1954), ‘Bhutarajya’ and ‘Domingo’ were the prominent movies of that age with the last two being produced by Dr. Shivaram Karanth. Other notable films were ‘Sati Sulocaha’ ‘Samsara Nauka’, ‘Vasanthsena,’ ‘Purandaradasa,’ ‘Bhakta Kumbara,’ ‘Mahatma Kabir,’ ‘Krishnaleela,’ ‘Chandrahasa,’ ‘Bharathi,’ ‘Nagakannika’ and ‘Jaganmohini.’ The notable personalities who made an impact on the silver screen in the early times were T.P. Kailasam, M.G. Mari Rao, Gubbi Veeranna, R. Nagendra Rao, M.V. Subbiah Naidu, Tripuramba, C.T. Sheshachalam, M.V. Rajamma, B.R. Pantulu, Kemparaj Urs, Shanker Singh, B.V. Vithalacharya, H.L.N. Simha and B.S. Ranga, the last two of whom were instrumental in bringing the Kannada Film field from Madras to Bangalore. ‘Bedara Kannappa’ (1954) launched Rajkumar who later grew into a legend in the Kannada film industry and also won the Dada Saheb Phalke award in 1997. In the 1950’s the trend of social films began and the notable films of that decade were ‘Premadaputri,’ ‘Modala Thedhi,’ ‘School Master,’ ‘Kanyadana.’ ‘Adarshasati,’ ‘Bhakta Markandeya,’ ‘Ratnagiri Rahasya,’ ‘Nala Damayanti,’ ‘Bhookailasa,’ ‘Jagajyothi Basaveshwara.’ ‘Dashavatara,’ ‘Ranadheera Kantheerava’ and ‘Bhakta

Kanakadasa.’

The year 1964 was significant in the history of Kannada films for the
* contributed by T.G. Ashwathanarayana production of the first entirely colour movie ‘Amarashilpi Jakanachari’. The same year witnessed the release of ‘Naandi,’ a new wave film made by N. Lakshminarayan. In the 1960’s the man acknowledge by one and all as the greatest director in Kannada film history, Puttanna Kanagal, made memorable films, like ‘Bellimoda’ (1967), ‘Gejje Pooje’ (1968), ‘Sharapanjara’ and in the 70s movies like ‘Sakshatkara,’ ‘Nagara Havu’ etc. The first film based on Children’s subject ‘Makkala Rajya’ was also released during this period. In the 1970’s film makers started adopting Kannada novels by famous authors to the screen and this phenomenon became immensely popular. The novels of eminent novelists like Aa Na Kru, Ta Raa Su, Krishnamurthy Puranik, Triveni, M.K. Indira, Poornachandra Tejasvi, S.L. Byrappa, Sai Sute and T.K. Rama Rao were made into movies. Poems of great poet like Bendre, Kuvempu, K.S. Narasimhaswamy, Gopalakrishna Adiga etc., were converted into film lyrics and they gained acclaim.

The decades of the 1970’s is considered the age of the new-wave or experimental films through films like ‘Samskara’ (1970), ‘Vamsa Vriksha’ (1972),
‘Abachurina Post Office’ (1973), ‘Kadu’ (1974), ‘Hamsageethe’ (1975), ‘Chomana Dudi’ (1975), ‘Pallavi’ (1976), ‘Karavall’ (1977), ‘KanneshwaraRama’ (1977),
‘Ghatashraddha’ (1977), ‘Chitegu Chinte’ (1978), ‘Ondu Orina Kathe,’ ‘Ondaanondu Kaaladalli/’Maleyamakklu,’ ‘Spandana’ (all in 1978), ‘Kadu Kudure’ and ‘Arivu* (1979), ‘Yellindalo Bandavaru’ (1980), ‘Grahana’ and ‘Moorudarigalu’ (1981), ‘Bara’ (1982), and in recent years Avasthe, Pushpaka Vimana , Surya,
Tabarana Kathe, Kaadina Benki, Tarka, Idhu Sadhya, Santha Shishunala Sharif, Bannada Gejje, Hagalu Vesha, Nagamandala, Deveeri etc. The commercially successful films of that period were ‘Nagar Havu’ and ‘Bangarada Manushya’ (1972), ‘Yedakallu Goodada Mele’ and ‘Professor Huchchuraya’ (1973), ‘Upasane’ and ‘Bhootayyana Maga Ayyu,’ (1974), ‘Aparichita’ and ‘Parasangda Gendethimma’ (1978), ‘Mother,’ ‘Mithuna’ (1980) and ‘Gaali Maatu’ (1981), Manasa Sarovara (1982), Phaniyamma (1983), Anubhava (1984), Bettada Hoovu, Masanada Hoovu (1985), Malaya Maruta (1986), Ondu Muttina Kathe (1987), Suprabhata (1988), Sankranti (1989), Udbhava, ShabariMale SwamyAyyappa (1990), Ramachari (1991), Kraurya, Pallavi, Anuroopa, Khandavldeko Mamsavideko, Sankalpa, Bankar Margaiah, Geejagana Goodu, Savithri, Giddah, Ghata Shradda (President’s Gold Medal), Akramana, Mane, Tayi Saheba (President’s Gold Medal) (1997), Aparichita and Beladingala Bale. In the 1980s the Government of Katnataka granted 50% tax exemption to Kannada films completely made in Kamataka and it increased the subsidy amount to films. At present all Kannada Films produced and processed entirely in the State is eligible for Rs. 2.50 lakhs (black & white) and Rs. 3.50 lakhs (colour). L.V. Prasad established a Colour Processing Laboratory in Bangalore, Besides, Sanketh, a recording studio of the Nag Brothers and the

Chamundeshwari studio were started. The availability of good infrastucture, encouragement received from the Government and the viewership had a cascading effect and there was a jump in the number of films made each year, in this decade.Films based on political and social themes, like ‘Accident,’ ‘Antha,’ ‘Bara,’ ‘Chakravyuha,’ ‘Aasphota,’ etc., were made in this decade. Films that were ommercially successful in this decade were ‘Ahtha,”Chakravyooha,’ ‘Hosabelaku,’ ‘Haalu Jenu,’ ‘Mududida Taavare Aralithu,’ ‘Bandhana,’ ‘Benkiya ale,’ ‘Anubhava,’ ‘Anand,’ ‘Rathasaptami,’ ‘Neebareda Kaadambari,’ ‘Premaloka,’
‘Pushpaka Vimana,’ ‘Ranadheera,’ ‘Suprabhata,’ ‘Sangliyana,’ ‘Nanjundi Kalyana,’ ‘Avale Nanna Hendathi,’ ‘Hendthige Helabedi,’ ‘Indrajit’ ‘Dada,’ ‘Deva,’
‘Anjadagandu,’ ‘Hridaya Haadithu,’ ‘Gagana,’ ‘CBI Shankar’, ‘Gajapathi Garvabhanga,’ ‘Ramachari,’ ‘Chaitrada Premanjali,’ ‘Bhanda Nanna Ganda,’ ‘Jeevan Chaitra’ and ‘Aakasmika’.

Even though the background instrumental music was in vogue in silent films, songs were sung in the first talkie film in 1934. It is said that the advent of modern orchestra in films was due to the efforts of P. Kalinga Rao in 1941. Playback Singing became popular later. Music directors like P. Shamanna, R. Sudarshan, G.K. Venkatesh, T.G. Lingappa, Vijaya Bhaskar, Rajan Nagendra and Hamasalekha have become popular. B.V. Karnath, Prema Karanth, Girish Kasaravalli, M.S. Satyu, Siddalingaiah, Girish Karnad, Suvarna, G.V. Iyer, Nagabharana and Baraguru Ramachandrappa are film directors who have won national awards. A promising young women film maker is Kavitha Lankesh (Deveeri Film). Many Kannada films have won a large number of State and National awards
over this period of time. Kamataka Film Chamber of Commerce was started in Bangalore in 1944. Some amateur film societies are producing film in 17 mm or 8mm cameras. These are ‘Assema,’ ‘Srishtri,’ ‘Swajan’ and ‘Suchitra’ Societies.

The first regional office of the National film Archives of India, Pune, was started in Bangalore in 1982 at Chowdiah Memorial Hall. It is engaged in collecting and preserving old and memorable films made in all the regional language of South India. The popular film studios of Karnataka are Premier Studio at Mysore and Chamundeshwari, Sree Kantheerava and Abhimaan at Bangalore. Many colour laboratories, processing units and recording units are also functioning in Bangalore, Which is the film city of Karnataka. Apart from veteran “Karnataka Ratna” Dr. Rajkumar who has won prestigious Dada Phalke Award, the Kannada screen has produced a host of talented artistes like Ashwath, Balakrishna, Narasimha Raju, Kalyan Kumar, Udaya Kumar, Gangadhar, Vishnuvardhan, Ambarish, Prabhakar, Sridhar, Ravichandran, Kashinath, Shankar Nag, Ananth Nag, Lokesh, Rajesh, Sudharshan, Srinath, C.R. Simha, Dwarkish, Vajramuni, Ramesh Arvind,
Ramgopal etc., and actresses like M.V. Rajamma, Leelavathi, B,V, Radha, Jayamma, Pandari Bai, B. Saroja Devi, Jayanthi, Kalpana, Aarti, Bharati,Manjula, Harini, Jayamala, Jayalakshmi, Malashri, Sudha Rani, Vaishali Kasaravalli, Tara etc. G.V. Iyer is the first to make the Film in Sanskrit “Adi Sankaracharya”

in 1984, which won for him the nations highest award. He further made “Madhwacharya” in Kannada in 1986 and “Ramanujacharya” in 1988 in Tamil trying to bring out the teachings of these saint, philosophers, through the medium of Cinema. Iyer again won the national award for his film “Bhagavadgeetha” in 1993.
The following films have won National Award under different Categories 1. Bedara Kannappa (1955); 2. Samskara (1970); 3. Chomana Dudi (1976); 4. Ghatashraddha (1978); 5. Dangeyedda Makkalu (1980); 6. Phaniyamma(1983); 7. Adi Shankaracharya (1984) 8. Tabarana Kathe (1987) 9. Pushpaka Vimana (1988); 10. Jamboo Savari (1990) 11. Tayi Saheba (1997) 12. Deveeri (1999) 13. Kanoor Heggadithi (2000)

Festivals and Fairs in Karnataka

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The Hindus have several religious holy days, occasions of festivals and fasts throughout the year. Some of the important festivals for Hindus are:

  • New Year Day or Ugadi (the first day of Chaitra month);
  • Ramanavami (the birth day of Lord Rama, the ninth day of Chaitra);
  • Basava Jayanthi the birth day of Basaweshwara (Akshayatritiya);
  • Shankara Jayanthi the birth day of Acharya Shankara (Vaishaka Shuddha Panchami);
  • Kara Hunnime (full moon day of Jyestha, a festival for peasants);
  • Ashadha Ekadashi (the eleventh day of the bright half of Ashadha);
  • BheemanaAmavasya (New Moon day of Ashadha);
  • Nagapanchami the festival of Serpent God (on the fifth day of Shravana);
  • Gokulashtami, the birth day of Lord Krishna (the eighth day of the dark fortnight of Shravana);
  • Ganesh Chaturthi (fourth day of the bright half of Bhadrapada when God Ganesh is worshiped);
  • Navarathri or Dasara (first ten days of Ashweeja Masa);
  • Deepavali (thirteenth day of dark half of Ashvija) and the festival of light and day to worship Goddess of Wealth Lakshmi (lasts for five days);
  • Bhogi and Makara Sankranthi (on the 13th and 14th January, respectively);
  • Mahashivarathri 13th or the 14th day of the dark fortnight of Magha, a festival in honour of God Shiva; and
  • Holi or Kamana Habba, marking the death of Kama (God of Love) on the full moon day of Phalguna, marked in places with much noise and gay abandon.

In many places, Navarathri is also celebrated as Nada Habba (State festival) on Vijayadashmi day (the victorious tenth day), the statue of Goddess Chamundeshvari is taken in a colourful procession to Bannimantapa with all pomp and pageantry, consisting of tableaux of historical episodes, infantry, mounted horses, Bharat Scouts and Girl Guides, NCC., Bharat Seva Dal etc. Rama Navami and Ganesh Chaturthi are marked by public celebrations accompanied by speeches, dance and music recitals. Kodavas have three important festivals like Koil Muhurta, Cauvery Sankramana and Huthri (harvest festival). The chief Muslim festivals are Id-ul-fitar or breaking the fast, which marks the conclusion of Ramazan; Idul-ul-Zuha or Bakrid which is held on the ninth day of the month called Zil-hajah and the Shab-e-Barat which is celebrated during the evening of the fifteenth day of the month of Shaban. Moharram is celebrated publicly in many places by honouring symbols called tabuts. The Christians observe the New Year day, Good Friday, Ascension day. Feast of St. Joseph, Easter Sunday (the Day of Resurrection), birth day of Mary, Christmas (the birth day of Christ), Thanks Giving Day, Harvest Festival and church anniversary.

The Jains celebrate most of the Hindu festivals in their own way and according to their own tradition and they give importance for fasting, praying and hearing the recitation of the religious texts. Some of the important festivals observed by them are Chaitra Pratipad (Ugadi) to commemorate the victorious
Digvijaya of Bharata, son of Teerthankara Adinatha (Vrishabhadeva); Mahavira Jayanthi (Chaitra Shukla Trayodashi); Dasara (Vijayadashami) is believed to
be the date when Adinatha attained Kevala Jnana or enlightment and the date when his son Bharata secured his disc or Chakraratna); Deepavali (celebrated as the date of Mahanirvana of Mahavira and they worship Lakshmi and Jnana Lakshmi) and Shivaratri (celebrated as Jinaratri as Adinatha is believed to have attained salvation on the dark 14th of Magha). The Sikhs observe Guru Nanak’s birth day of Karteeka Pournima and Gurudwara inauguration day at Nanak Jhira, Bidar with enthusiasm and pomp with ‘akhand pathan’ of Guru Granth Sahib. Kirtan and Satsang attract a large number of Sikhs from many places.

Jatras:

Every year, the Jatras (fairs) are held in honour of village dieties (grama devathas) generally after the harvest takes place. In Hindu temples, Muslim dargahs, Jain bastis and in other holy places of worship people celebrate annual festivals. Men,women, people of rural and urban areas take part in
these jatras with full enthusiasm without discrimination of caste, creed and religion. Itinerary merchants open their stalls to sell toys, sweets, sarees,
vessels, bangles and other items during these jatras. Cattle fairs are also held in many places during the jatras and these are the centres of large trade
and commerce. Jatras promote social and religious harmony among various sections of the society.

Place Name

Month*

Deity/Saint in whose honour the jatra is held

# days

Approximate attendance

Bagalkot dt,Sivayogamandir,Badami taluk Jan.Feb. Hanagal Kumara Swamy 4 50,000
Bangalore district,Bangalore city,Nagartharapete Apr. Dharmaraya (Karaga) 1 5 lakhs
Basavanagudi Nov. Basavanna,(Groundnut fair) 1 50,000
Hanumanthanagar Aug. Kumaraswamy 3 3 lakhs
Bangalore Rural dt.,Huskur, Anekal taluk Feb. Mar. Madduramma 1 40,000
Magadi Apr. Ranganatha 1 1 lakh
Melinajuganahalli,
Doddaballapur taluk
Dec. Ghati Subrahmanya 1 1 lakh
Shivagange
Nelamangala Taluk
Jan Gangadhareshwara 7 50,000
Belgaum dt.,Panth Balekundri,Belgaum taluk Oct.Apr. May Datta Maharaj 3 25,000
Saundatti Nov, Dec Yellamma devi 1 lakh
Handi Badaganatha
Khanapur Tq. Feb.(Shivaratri) Kalabhairava 2 50,000
Chinchili, Raibag taluk Feb Mayakkaa 1 1 lakh
Bellary dt.,
Mailara, Hadagali taluk
Apr. Mailaralinga 4 2 lakhs
Hampi, Hospet taluk Nov. Virupaksha 4 2 lakhs
Bellary Feb. Malleshwara 7 80,000
Kurugodu, Bellary Tq. Apr. Basaveshwara 2 50,000
Sandur Nov. Kumaraswamy 4 20,000
Yashvantanagar,Sandur taluk Apr. Siddarameshwara 2 50,000
Bidar dt.,
Basavakalyana
(Shawwal) Hazrat Syed ,
Tajuddin Bagsawar ,
Urus
5 25,000
Basavakalyan Apr. May Basaveshwara 3 50,000
Humnabad Dec. Veerabhadra 7 30,000
Bijapur dt. ,
Bijapur
Jan.Feb. Siddeshwara 8 30,000
Chamarajanagar dt. ,
Mahadeshwara Hills,
Kollegal taluk
Oct.Nov. Malai Mahadeshwara 7 1 lakh
Chikmagalore dt. ,
Inam Dattatreya Peetha,,
Chikamagalur Tq.
Mar. Dattatreya-Bababudan 3 25,000
Antarghatta,
Tarikere taluk
Feb. Antarghattamma 10 1 lakh
Chitradurga dt. ,
Nayakanahatti,
Challakere taluk
Mar. Thippe Rudra 15 45,000
Dakshina Kannada dt. ,
Dharmasthala
Nov. Manjunatheshwara 3 1,00,000
Davanagere dt. Mar Duggamma 1 80,000
Yalebethur,Davanagere taluk Jan.(once in 3 years) Marikamba 1 80,000
Dharwad dt.,Yamanur, Navalgund Tq. Mar.Apr. Raja Bagh Savar Urus 1 20,000
Dharwad Aug. Ulvi Basavanna 1 30,000
Dharwad Feb. Murugendra 1 30,000
Hubli Feb. Siddharudha 1 1 lakh
Gadag dt.,Gadag Apr. Thotada,Siddalingeshwara 1 20,000
Mukti Mandira,Shirahatti taluk Feb. Dharama Rathotsava 7 More than 1 lakh
Gulbarga dt.Gulbarga Mar. Sharana Basavappa 15 1 lakh
Gulbarga Zekhaida Khaja Bande Nawaz 3 1 lakh
Diggi, Shahapur taluk Aug. Sangamanath 3 50,000
Ganagapur(Deval),Afzalpur taluk Feb. Dattatreya 5 50,000
Hassan dt.,Shravanabelagola (Once in 12 years) Mahamastakabhisheka of Gomateshwara 13 2-3 lakhs
Haveri dt.Shishuvinal,Shiggaon taluk Mar. Shishunal Shariff 1 20,000
Guddada Guddapura
Ranebennur Tq.
Sep.Oct. Mailara Lingeshwara 2 25,000
Kodagu dt.Bhagamandala,Madikeri taluk Oct.Nov. Cauvery 2 20,000
Kolar dt.Thoranahalli,Malur taluk Jan. Sappalamma 10 30,000
Avani, Mulbagal taluk Thalakayalubetta, Feb. Ramalingeshwara 10 30,000
Sidlaghatta taluk Feb. Venkataramana 10 25,000
Nandi, Chikkaballapur Tq. Feb. Bhoga and Yoga Nandeeshwara 7 40,000
Doddakurugodu, (Viduraswatha Gouribidanur Tq. Apr. Vidurnarayana 8 40,000
Devaragudipalli, Bagepalli taluk May. Gadadam Venkataramana 16 30,000
Koppal dt.Koppal June Gavisiddeshwara 5 20,000
Kuknur May Gudneshwara 1 50,000
Mandya dt.Melcote,Pandavapur taluk Mar.Apr. Chaluva NarayanaVairamudi 6 1 lakh
Adichunchanagiri, Nagamangala taluk Jan.Feb Bairava 10 30,000
Srirangapattana Jan. Ranganatha 1 25,000
Mysore dt.Chamundi Hills, Mysore Oct. Chamundeshwari 3 50,000
Talakadu, Nov. Dec.(once Panchalinga
T.Narasipur taluk in 12 years) Darshana 7 2 lakhs
Nanjangud Mar.Apr. Srikanteshwara 15 75,000
Mudukuthore,T.Narasipur taluk Feb.Mar. Mallikarjuna 3 25,000
Raichur dt.Raichur Aug. Syed Shams Alam,Hussain Ali Urus 1 50,000
Devarbhupur,Lingasugur Tq. Feb.Mar. Amareshwara 1 50,000
Shimoga dt.Shimoga Apr. Kote Anjaneya 3 20,000
Islapura, Shimoga Tq. Jan. Guddakal 2 80,000
Pulangere, July Venkataramana 1 30,000
Sagar Jan (Once

in 3 years)

Marikamba 9 40,000
Humcha, Hosanagar Tq. Tq. Mar. Padmavati and

Parshwanatha

1 10,000
Tumkur dt.,Siddaganga, Tumkur Feb Siddhalingeshwara 10 50,000
Yadiyur, Kunigal taluk Apr. Siddhalingeshwara 7 50,000
Devarayanadurga Apr./Mar Narasimha 1 50,000
Udupi dt.Udupi Jan.(Once in 2 years) Lord Krishna / paryaya 7 50,000
Kollur, Kundapur Tq. Nov. Mookambika 10 1,00,000
Subrahmanya,Sullia Tq. Dec. Subrahmanya 1 25,000
Uttara Kannada dt. Banavasi Dec. Madhukeshwara 2 1 lakh
Sirsi Mar (Once in
2 years)
Marikamba 7 1 lakh
Sonda(Swadi), Sirsi taluk May Vadiraja 5 25,000
Ulvi, Supa taluk Jan.Feb Channabasaveshwara 8 50,000
Gokana, Kumta taluk Mar. (Shivaratri) Mahabaleshwara 1 50,000
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Historical Places in Karnataka Archeology in Karnataka Dams in Karnataka Districts of Karnataka
Beaches in Karnataka Hill Station in Karnataka Islands of Karnataka Waterfalls in Karnataka
Birds Sanctuaries in Karnataka National Parks in Karnataka Wildlife Sanctuary of Karnataka Rivers in Karnataka
Holiday Resorts Fairs in Karnataka Festivals in Karnataka Temples in Karnataka

Religions in Karnataka

Karnataka is a land of many religions. Every religion has contributed in its own way in shaping the life and activities of the people and promoting the culture of Karnataka. Majority of people in Karnataka are adherent to Hinduism and the other major religions of the State are Buddhism, Christianity, Jainism, Islam and Sikkhism. According to 1981 census the population and the percentage of the total population of different religions were as follows (The first figure in the bracket indicates the population and the second figure is the percentage of the total population): Buddhists (42,251;0.05); Christians

(7,73,500; 2.08); Hindus 3,18,52,029; 85.77); Jains (2,84,508; 0.77); Muslims (41,63,691; 11.21); Sikhs (6,401; 0.02); other religions and persuations (12,901;0.04) and religions not stated (433, negligible).

According to 1991 census the population and the percentage of the total population of different religions and religions not stated were as follows (the first figure in the bracket indicates the population and the second figure is the percentage of the total population : Buddhists (73,012 – 0.16), Christians
(8,59,478 – 1.91), Hindus (3,84,32,027 – 85.45), Jains (3,26,114 – 0.73), Muslims (52,34,023 – 11.64), Sikhs (10,101 – 0.02), other religions and persuations (6,325 – 0.01) and religion not stated (36,121 -0.08). According to 2001 census the population and the percentage of the total population of different religions are as follows (the first figure indicates the population and the second figure is the percentage of the total population) Buddhists 393300, 0.74; Christians 1009164, 1.90; Hindus 44321279, 83.86; Jains 412659,0.78; Muslims 6463127,12.23; Others 115460, 0.22; Religion not stated 120247, 0.23; Sikhs 15326,0.02.

Hinduism:

Hinduism comprises of several sects and faiths. The Hindu Code denotes all persons who profess Hindu religion either by birth by Hindu parents or by conversion. All Indians who are not Muslims, Christians, Parsees or Jews, can be termed as Hindus. Hinduism according to Hindu Law includes followers of Vedic tradition, Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists, Veerashaivas, Arya Samajists, Bramhos and the followers of aministic cults including Bhuta worship etc. There are a number of cults and religious practices, among Hindus. Gokarna is an important Shaiva centre of great antiquity. Pranaveshwara temple at Talagunda is one of the oldest among the Shiva shrines of India. Shankaracharya (circa 788-820) visited Karnataka and the Sringeri Peetha is one of the four mathas believed to have been founded by him in India. He preached the doctrine of Monism or Advaita, according to which Brahma or the Supreme Being alone is real and the universe is illusory or Maya. He advised people to worship any of the six deities, Shiva, Vishnu, Shakti, Kartikeya, Ganapathi or Surya. In addition to Sringeri, Shankara Mathas were also founded later at Kudali, Shivaganga, Avani and Sankeshwara in Karnataka. Many groups of Brahmanas like the Badaganadu, Mulukanadu, Babburakamme, Kota, Karade, Hoysala Karnataka, Uluchukamme, and Chitpavan are adherents of the school of Shankara in Karnataka.

Veerashaivism is a full blown offshoot of earlier Shaivism. Five Acharyas had earlier taught this cult. It was popularised by Basava (circa 1131-1167), the Treasurer of Kalachuri Bijjala of Kalyana. Basava and his contemporaries preached their religion in Kannada. The Veerashaiva teachers preached through Vachanas (poetic-prose) and they propagated the worship of Shiva and the leading of a life of morality and condemned social evils like caste differences and untouchability. Basava stressed the dignity of labour by his statement ‘Kayakave kailasa’ (‘worship through work’) and wanted every Veerashaiva to follow some useful profession to earn his rightful livehood. Jedara Dasimayya and Ekantada Ramayya, two saints who had preceded Basava and contemporaries of Basva like Allama Prabhu, Channabasava, Siddarama, Madivala Machayya (a washerman), Kakkayya (a cobbler), Hadapada Appanna (a barber) and women like Akka Mahadevi, Akka Nagamma, Neelambika and Muktayakka were among those who composed Vachanas and propounded this philosophy. The Veerashaivas are a major section in the section and are recognised by the Ishtalinga which they wear on their body. The practice of ‘dasoha’ led to the starting of free hostels by the Veerashaiva Mathas and in the long run to educational institutions. The Veerashaivas are rendering yeoman service in the field of education in the state. Natha Pantha, believed to be a blend of Mahayana Buddhism and Shaivism, was also popular in Karnataka. Natha Pantha Mathas are found in many parts 88 A Handbook of Karnataka

beginning from Handi Badaganath in Belgaum District to Kadri and Vittala in Dakshina Kannada. Adichunchangiri in Mandya was once a centre of this cult. Dattatreya worship (influenced by the Natha Pantha) is a popular cult in Karnataka. Narasimha Saraswathi (1378-1455) believed to be an ‘avatara’ of Dattatreya had visited Bidar and is described to have cured Bahamani Sultan, Allaudin of some serious sickness. Ganagapur in Gulbarga district, Kurugadda in Raichur District and Baba Budangiri in Chikamagalur district are a few notable centres of Dattatreya worship in Karnataka. Another form of Shaivism that was and is popular in Karnataka is the worship of Mailara and his consort Malachi (Malawa). Centres of this worship are found at Adi and Mangsuli in Bidar district, Mailara in Bellary district, Guddadaguddapur in Haveri district and Bellur in Mandya District. Promoters of this cult, wearing red robes and a cap made of bear skin are found even today and are called Goravas or Vaggayyas. Vaishnavism is another old religion in Karnataka. Some of the early Ganga rulers were also Vaishnavas. Ramanuja (1017-1137) who was born in Tamil Nadu, came to Karnataka during the beginning of the twelth century. Ramanuja taught alified monism or Vishishtadwaitha. Vishnu is the Supreme Deity, accompanied by his consort Lakshmi and she represents divine grace. Lakshmi is the mediator between God and men. That is why this religion is called Srivaishnavism. Ramanuja try to preach to all in the society and even admitted the ‘untouchables’ into the temples on specified days in a year. Many fine Vaishanava temples including the one at Belur in the Hoysalas style were constructed during this time. Melkote has the famous Cheluvarayaswamy temple and Mysore City has the famous Parakala matha of this cult. After Ramanuja came Acharya Madhwa (1238-1317) who was born at Pajaka near Udupi. He preached the philosophy of Dualism or Dwaita and worship of Vishnu, who is the Supreme Diety according to him. The teachings of both Ramanuja and Madhwa, who propounded Bhakti (devotion) gave an impetus to the Bhakti Movement of North India. He started eight Mathas to conduct
the worship of the Lord Krishna in turns. Uttaradi Matha at Hospet and Raghavendra Brindavana at Mantralaya in Andhra Pradesh are other noted centres of this sect.

Worship of Shakti or the Mother Deity is found in various forms in different parts of the state. Most of the villages have village deities who are believed to protect the villages. The epidemics like cholera, small pox, plague etc. are believed to be caused by the anger of the Mother Deities. These deities are
also called Gramadevatas under different names like Maramma, Malagamma, Yellamma, Renukamma, Durgamma, Dyamawwa and Kalikadevi in different parts of the state. A village deity is often represented by an image, a shapeless stone or some other symbol and in many places, She has shrines built in her honour. There can be wooden images also, some of them gaily painted. Blood sacrifice was also offered to these deities. Yellamma at Saudatti, People 89 Kolaramma at Kolar, Marikamba at Sirsi, Mayavva at Chincholi (Belgaum district) and Chandralamba at Sannati are some notable centres of such deities. The Jatra of Madduramma at Huskur (where the priests are from the Scheduled Castes) near Bangalore is attended by scores of thousands.

Buddhism:

Buddhism was popular in Karnataka from the time of Ashoka. It is believed that Ashoka had sent Buddhist missionaries to Banavasi. Hiuen- Tsiang who visited Karnataka in about 640 says that Banavasi country had hundreds of Viharas. At Sannati and Kanaganahalli (Gulbarga district), remains of Stupas of Shatavahana times have been unearthed. There are Buddist monuments of Chalukyan times at Badami and Aihole in Bijapur district. Tharabhagavati images have been found at Belgavi (Balligave, Shimoga Dt.) and Koliwada (Dharwad Dt). Many Buddhist remains were unearthed in and around Hampi. Some of the centres of Buddhist worship as in Kadiri later were converted into centres of Shaiva worship and Manjushri at Dharmastala became Manjunatha. They came under the influence of the Natha Panthis. There are worderful 10th Century bronze images at Kadri which include Lokeshwara. There is a Mahabodi Society at Bangalore active both in social and spiritual activites, of late many SC’s have embraced Neo-Buddhism.

Jainism :

Jainism has been an important religion of Karnataka and it has contributed quite substantially to the culture of Karnataka. Bhadrabahu, the last Shrutakevalin, migrated to Karnataka with a large number of followers including a Maurya prince and spent his last years at Shravanabelgola. Banavasi Kadambas built Jaina basti at Halsi, the ancient Palashika in Belgaum dt. The Gangas highly patronised Jainism and famous Gomata monolith at Shravanabelagola was erected (Circa 982) by Chavundaraya noted scholar and Ganga general. Bastis were built at Shravanabelgola, Manne and Kambadahalli during the Ganga rule. There were Jaina scholars like Pujyapada (Devanandi) and Kundakunda in the Ganga court and Kannada authors Nemichandra and Chavundaraya were also Jains. The Kadambas, the Rashtrakutas and Chalukyas of Kalyana were the great patrons of Jainism. Great mathematician Mahavira, the earliest Kannada poets Srivijaya, Pampa, Ponna and Ranna were Jains. Gomata monoliths were erected at Gommatagiri in Hunsur Taluk (Mysore district), Karkala in Udupi dt. (1432), Venuru (1603)
and recently at Dharmasthala (1982) in Dakshina Kannada District. The Jains in Karnataka are mostly followers of the Digambara sect and Swetamabaras came in recent years from Gujarat and Rajasthan mainly to trade and are found mostly in commercial towns and cities.

Sikhism :

Sikhism also has left Its Imprint on Karnataka. Guru Nanak is believed to have visited Bidar and there is Guru Nanak Jhira Sahib in his memory. One of the close disciples (Panch Piyares) of Guru Govind, Bhal Sahib Chand (later known as Sahib Singh), a barber, was from Bidar and he was among the five who were initiated to the Khalsa. Considerable number of Sikhs took service under Hyder and Tipu and many have come and settled 90 A Handbook of Karnataka down in the cities of Karnataka in recent decades. There are Gurudwaras at Bangalore, Gulbarga and Hubli.

Islam :

Islam entered Karnataka soon after its propagation in Arabia as Arabs were trading at the ports of Karnataka. Some of the Arabs had settled on the West Coast and inscriptions speak of them as Tajjikas. As testified by Sanjan plates, the Rashtrakutas had a Tajjika Governor and Arab travellers also speak of Muslim settlement in the major commercial centres of Rashtrakuta empire. Their guild called Hanjamana (Anjuman) is mentioned in the records of the Kadambas of Goa, Alupas of Dakshina Kannada and of Vijayanagara. The Navayats and the Mapilles (Moplas) are the Muslims from Karnataka Coast, who follow the Shafi sect like the Arabs. The Afghan, Turks, Persians etc. are called Dakhni Muslims, who speak Urdu and belong to Hanafl sect. Islam introduced the Persian and the Arabic languages into Karnataka and Dakhni Urdu also developed in the South. Fine Indo-Sarsenic monuments at Gulbarga, Bidar, Bijapur, Sira and Srirangapatna have the pride of place in the history of the arts of Karnataka. The Sufi sect is also popular in Karnataka and the tomb of Bande Nawaz Gesu Daravaz at Gulbarga is higly venerated by all. The Sufi received royal patronage by Bahmani rulers and they were active at Gulbarga, Bidar and Bijapur. The Muslims introduced coffee, paper and agarbatti [joss stick) industry into Karnataka. Tipu introduced sericulture.

Christianity:

With the advent of the Portugese, Catholic Christians entered Karnataka. Portugese founded factories at Mangalore, Kundapura and Honavar where they also tried to secure converts to their religion in the days of Vijayanagara. Inquisition, epidemic and famine forced many Catholic Christians to leave Goa and enter Karnataka. Keladi rulers encouraged their migration as the Christians had acquired new techniques of agriculture and animal husbandry. Keladi Channamma granted a site to them to build a church at Mangalore. During the beginning of the 19th century, Protestant missions like the Basel Mission, the London Mission and the Wesleyan Mission entered Karnataka. The London Mission was first founded at Bellary in 1810 and from there they came to Bangalore in 1820. The wesleyans started their activites in princely Mysore from 1821 and the Basel Mission started its activity in Mangalore in 1834 and later spread to other places like Dharwad, Hubli, Haveri and Gadag. The Basel Mission started the first Kannada news paper, ‘Mangalura Samachara’ in 1843 and printed Kannada classics which were found written on palm leaves. Both Catholics and Protestants popularised English education in Karnataka by opening schools at Mangalore, Madikeri, Bangalore, Bellary, Dharwad and Belgaum. They also took up service in the field of healing and ran many hospitals. Modern Religious Movements: The modern religious movements like Brahma Samaj, Arya Samaj, Theosophical Society, Ramakrishna Mission, Chinmaya Mission and Prajapitha Brahma Kumari Ishwariya Vishwavidyalaya have influenced the life of Karnataka by starting their activities in the State.

The Theosophical Society started functioning in the State in 1886 with its first Lodge at Bangalore City followed by Bangalore Cantonment Lodge in the same year and subsequently started its branches in various places like Mangalore (1901) and Dharwad (1902). The Ramakrishna Mission was first started at Bangalore in 1904 followed by one at Mysore in 1927. Swami Vivekananda had visited Belgaum and Mysore in 1892 and the then Mysore ruler Chamaraja Wodeyar extended financial help to Swami Vivekananda for his journey to Chicago. A trusted follower of Swami Vivekananda, Alasinga Perumal (1865-1909) was from Chikmagalur and he founded the journal ‘Brahmavadin’ from Madras at the Swami’s instance. Brahma Samaj opened its first branch in Karnataka at Bangalore in 1866
followed by branches at Mangalore and Mysore. Kudmul Ranga Rao, who started Depressed Classes Mission at Mangalore in 1897 was influenced by Brahma Samaj. Sir Narayan Chandavarkar of the Prarthana Samaj hailed from Honavar in Uttara Kannada. Arya Samaj started functioning in Mysore State by early 1880s and a branch was opened at Mangalore in 1919 and at Bangalore in 1922. The modern religious movements have not only played an important role in social reforms such as work against untouchability and emancipation of women but also in promotion of moral education. Men like Sir Sheshadri Iyer, the Dewan of Mysore were
influenced by these movements and enacted laws aimed at social reform.

Referecne:www.kannadasiri.kar.nic.in

Urbanisation of karnataka

Urbanisation of karnataka

Karnataka stood 10th in the level of urbanisation in 1981
census and has moved to 11th rank in 1991 census among the States and
Union Territories in India. The rate of urbanisation is faster in Karnataka
when compared to other states of India. This trend has been growing from
1901 till 1991. In the 1991 census, there are 306 places in the State classified
as towns as against 281 towns in 1981 census. The State is becoming steadily
urbanised. It has a larger proportion of its population living in urban areas,
than the average for the country as a whole. The districtwise total number of
towns as per 1991 census was as follows: Bangalore 33; Bangalore Rural 9;
Belgaum 22; Bellary 12; Bidar 5; Bijapur 18; Chikmagalur 10; Chitradurga
10; Dakshina Kannada 27; Dharwad 20; Gulbarga 19; Hassan 13; Kodagu 9;
Kolar 15; Mandya 11; Mysore 18; Raichur 13; Shimoga 16; Tumkur 12 and
Uttara Kannada 14.

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Density of Population of Karnataka

Density of Population of Karnataka

The number of persons for every square kilometre area is called the density of population. The density of population in the state was 235 in 1991 as against 194 in 1981 which is less than that of the country (267 in 1991 as against 230 in 1981). Among 35 states and union territories in the country Karnataka occupies the 20th position in density population in 1991 and 2001. According to 2001 census Bangalore District has registered the highest density of 2,985 persons per sq. km and the lowest of 132 persons per sq.km. in Kodagu and Uttara Kannada district. The density of population in the urban areas of Bangalore district in 1991 was 10,375 per sq km and next comes Mysore district which has a density of 5,508 per sq. km. in the urban areas. Apart from Bangalore, Dakshina Kannada, Mysore, Mandya, harwad, Bangalore Rural, Belgaum, Kolar and Davangere districts have a density of more than 300 persons per sq. km. Those with a density between 250 and 300 were Haveri, Udupi, Bidar, Hassan and Bagalkot districts; with a density etween 200 and 250 were Bidar, Chitradurga, Hassan and Tumkur. Raichur, Tumkur, Bellary, Gadag, Mysore and Mandya districts have an urban density of more than 5,000.

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Sex Ratio of karnataka

Sex Ratio of karnataka

The sex ratio is defined as the number of females for every 1000 males in a given area. The sex ratio of population in 2001 was 965. The rural sex ratio was 977 and that of the urban ratio was 942, as compared to the figures to that of 1991 (Rural 975, Urban 930; Total 961). The sex ratio has almost remained the same for the total population of he state with a slight decrease in the number of females whereas in the rural areas the ratio was higher and in the urban areas it was a little less during 2001. During 2001, the district-wise sex ratio was as follows: Bagalkot 980, Bangalore 908; Bangalore Rural 955; Belgaum 960; Bellary 969; Bidar 949; Bijapur 950; Chamarajanagar 971; Chikmagalur 984; Chitradurga 955; Dakshina Kannada 1022; Davanagere 952; Dharwad 949; Gadag 969; Gulbarga 966; ssan 1004; Haveri 944; Kodagu 996; Kolar 972; Koppal 983; Mandya 986; Mysore 964; Raichur 983; Shimoga 978; Tumkur 967; Udupi 1130, and Uttara Kannada 971. These figures indicate that the sex ratio in the districts of Bangalore, Bangalore Rural, Belgaum, Bidar, Bijapur, Chitradurga, Davanagere, Dharwad, Haveri and Mysore was less than the tate’s average and Udupi has a higher sex ratio than other areas.

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Demography of Karnataka

Demography of Karnataka

According to 1991 census, Karnataka with an area of 1,91,791 sq. km. has a population of 44,977,201 with 22,951,917 males and 22,025,284 females. Karnataka State ranks 9th among the 28 States and 7 Union Territories in the Indian Union both in respect of area and population as per 2001 census. Karnataka’s population constitute 5.1% of India’s opulation. As can be seen from the trends in growth of population, there was a fall in growth and a decrease during 1911-21 due to epidemics, plague and influenza. In 30 years between 1901 and 1931 the population increased only bout a million and a half. The rate of growth of population has accelerated from 1951 onwards. The percentage growth rate of population during 1981-91 was 21.12 (Rural 17.65 and Urban 29.62) as against 26.76 during 1971-81 (Rural 19.07 and Urban 50.65). Among the districts, during 1981-91, Bangalore District has recorded the highest growth rate of 38.44 per cent and Kodagu has registered the lowest growth rate of 5.57 percent. The district-wise population of the State in 1991 and the percentage of decennial increase between 1981 and 1991 are as follows: Bangalore 8,39,162- 38.44%; Bangalore Rural 16,73,194-15.23%; Belgaum 35,83,606-20.24%; Bellary 18,90,092-26.92%; Bidar 12,55,799-26.12%; Bijapur 29,27,900-21.91%, Chikmagalur 10,17,283-10.37%; Chitradurga 21,80,443-22.67%; Dakshina 82 A Handbook of Karnataka Kannada 26,94,264-13.31%; Dharwad 35,03,150-18.93%; Gulbarga 25,82,169- 24.12%; Hassan 15,69,684-15.57%; Kodagu 4,88,455-5.75%; Kolar 22,16,889- 16.34%; Mandya 16,44,374-15.96%; Mysore 31,65,018-21.92%; Raichur 23,09,887-29.49%; Shimoga 19,09,663-15.27%; Tumkur 23,05,819-16.58% and Uttara Kannada 12,20,260-13.83%.
The District-wise population table of 27 districts of the state in 2001 is given at the end of the chapter.

 

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Chief Ministers of Karnataka

Sl. No. Name Party Period
1 Chengalaraya Reddy Congress October 25, 1947 – March 30, 1952
2 Kengal Hanumanthaiah Congress March 30, 1952 – August 19, 1956
3 Kadidal Manjappa Congress August 19, 1956 – October 31, 1956
4 S. Nijalingappa Congress November 1, 1956 – April 10, 1957
5 S. Nijalingappa Congress April 10, 1957 – May 16, 1958
6 B.D. Jatti Congress May 16, 1958 – March 9, 1962
7 S.R. Kanthi Congress March 14, 1962 – June 20, 1962
8 S. Nijalingappa Congress June 21, 1962 – March 3, 1967
9 S. Nijalingappa Congress March 3, 1967 – May 29, 1968
10 Veerendra Patil Congress May 29, 1968 – March 18, 1971
Presidents Rule March 19, 1971 – March 20, 1972
11 D. Devaraj Urs Congress March 20, 1972 – December 31, 1977
Presidents Rule December 31, 1977 – February 28, 1978
12 D. Devaraj Urs Congress February 28, 1978 – January 7, 1980
13 R. Gundu Rao Congress January 12, 1980 – January 6, 1983
14 Ramakrishna Hegde Janata Party January 10, 1983 – December 29, 1984
15 Ramakrishna Hegde Janata Party March 8, 1985 – February 13, 1986
16 Ramakrishna Hegde Janata Party February 16, 1986 – August 10, 1988
17 S.R. Bommai Janata Party August 13, 1988 – April 21, 1989
Presidents Rule April 21, 1989 – November 30, 1989
18 Veerendra Patil Congress November 30, 1989 – October 10, 1990
Presidents Rule October 10, 1990 – October 17, 1990
19 S. Bangarappa Congress October 17, 1990 – November 19, 1992
20 M. Veerappa Moily Congress November 19, 1992 – December 11, 1994
21 H.D. Deve Gowda Janata Dal December 11, 1994 – May 31, 1996
22 J.H. Patel Janata Dal May 31, 1996 – October 07, 1999
23 S.M. Krishna Congress October 11, 1999 – May 28, 2004
24 Dharam Singh Congress

[Congress-JD(s) coalition]

May 28, 2004 – Jan 27, 2006
24 H D Kumaraswamy JD(s)

[BJP-JD(s) coalition]

Feb 3, 2006 –  October 8, 2007
25 Presidents Rule October 9, 2007 – November 8, 2007
26 B S Yeddyurappa BJP

[BJP-JD(s) coalition]

November 12, 2007 – November 19, 2007
27 Presidents Rule November 20, 2007 – May 29, 2008
28 B S Yeddyurappa BJP May 30, 2008 –
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Beaches in Karnataka Hill Station in Karnataka Islands of Karnataka Waterfalls in Karnataka
Birds Sanctuaries in Karnataka National Parks in Karnataka Wildlife Sanctuary of Karnataka Rivers in Karnataka
Holiday Resorts Fairs in Karnataka Festivals in Karnataka Temples in Karnataka

Awards in Kannada Literature

Gnanapitha Award Winners

1. K.V. Puttappa (1967), 2. D.R.Bendre (1973), K. Shivaram Karanth (1977), 4. Masti Venkatesh lyengar (1983). 5. V.K.Gokak (1990), 6. U.R. Ananthamurthy (1994). 7. Girish Karnad (1998) Karnataka Ratna Award Winners
K.V. Puttappa and Dr. Rajkumar (1992); S. NIjalingappa (1999), C.N.R. Rao (2000).

Central Sahitya Academy Award Winners

1. K.V. Puttappa (1955), 2. R.S. Mugali (1958), 3. D.R.Bendre (1958), 4. K. Shivarama Karanth (1959), 5. V.K.Gokak (1960), 6. A.R. Krishna Shastri (1961), 7. Devudu Narasimhashastri (1962), 8. B. Puttaswamaiah(1964), 9. * contributed by C. Sitaram S.V. Ranganna (1956), 10. P.T. Narasimhachar (1966), 11. D.V. Gundappa (1967), 12. Masti Venkatesh lyengar (1968), 13. H. Thipperudraswamy (1969), 14. Sham.Ba.Joshi (1970), 15. Shriranga (1971), 16. S.S. Bhoosanuru Matha (1972), 17. V. Seetharamaiah (1973), 18. M. Gopalakrishna Adiga (1974), 19.

S.L. Bhyrappa (1975), 20. M. Shivaram (1976), 21. K.S. Narasimhaswamy (1977), 22. B.G.L.Swamy (1978), 23. A.N. Murthi Rao (1979), 24. Goruru Ramaswamy lyengar (1980), 25. Channaveera Kanavi (1981), 26. Chaduranga (1982), 27. Yashavantha Chittala (1983), 28. G.S. Shivarudrappa (1984), 29. Ta.Ra.Su (Subbarao) (1985), 30. Vyasaraya Ballala (1986), 31. K.P.Purnachandra Tejasvi (1987), 32. Shankara Mokashi Punekar (1988), 33. Devanuru Mahadeva (1989), 34. S.V. Parmeshwara Bhatta (1990), 35. Ha.Ma.Nayak (1990), 36.
Chandrashekara Kambara{1991), 37. H.S.Venkatesha Murthi (1991), 38. Su.Ram.Yakkundi (1992), 39. Saraswathi Gajanana Risbud (1992), 40. P.Lankesh (1993), 41. Kirthinatha Kurthakoti (1993), 42. Girish Kamad (1994), 43. Pradhan Gurudatta (1994), 44. Thippeswamy (1995), 45. G.S.Amura (1996), 46. M.Chidananda Murthy (1997), 47. B.C.Ramachandra Sharma (1998), 48. D.R. Nagaraj (posthumous 1999) Shantinatha Desai (posthumous 2000), L.S.Sheshagiri Rao (2001); Sujana (2002); K.V.Subbanna (2003), Geetha Nagabhushana (2004).

Pampa Award Winners

1. K.V. Puttappa (1987), 2. T.N. Shreekanthaiya (1988), 3. K. Shivaram Karanth(1989), 4. S.S. Bhoosanurumath (1990), 5. P.T. Narasimhachar (1991), 6.A.N. Murthi Rao (1992), 7. M. opalakrishna Adiga (1993), 8. Sediyapu
Krishna Bhatta (1994), 9. K.S. Narasimhaswamy (1995), 10. M.M. Kalburgi (1996), 11. G.S. Shivarudrappa (1997), 12. D. Javare Gowda (1998), 13. Chennaveera Kanavi (1999), 14. L. Basavaraju (2000), 15. K.P.Purnachandra Tegasvi (2001), 16. M.Chidananda Murthy (2002) and 17. Chandrashekara Kambara (2003).

Rajyothsava Award Winners

To bring progress in different aspects of culture of the State, the Government is recognising the good work done by the Scholars Artistes, Social workers, Lawyers, Doctors and Institutions etc., and is encouraging them with Rajyothsava Awards, on the Rajyothsava Day, every year. Upto 2004 a total number of 1466 have been honoured with this Rajyothsava Awards. Dana Chintamani Atthimabbe Award Winners l.T. Sunandamma (1995), 2. Shantadevi Malavada (1996), 3. Vaidehi (1997), 4. Kamala Hampana (1998), 5. Mallika (1999) 6. Jayalakshmi Srinivasan (2000), 7. Sara Abubakar (2001), 8. Geetha Nagabhushana (2002) and 9. Shylaja Uduchana (2003).

Jaanapada Shree Award Winners

1. S.K. Karim Khan (1994), 2. Kamsale Mahadevaiah (1995), Yedramanahalli Doddabharamappa (1996), 4. Phakirawa Gudisagara (1997), 5. Hiriyadka Gopala Rao (1998), 6. Sukri Bomma Gowda (1999), 7. Takkalike
Vitthala Rao (2000), 8. Hamgi Mudimallappa (2001), 9. M.R.Basappa (2002), 10. Chittani Ramachandra Hegde (2003).

Karnataka Sahitya Academy Awards

Karnataka Sahitya Academy is sanctioning Annual Awards to those renowned litterateurs and other personalities in recognistion of their services towards promotion of literature and culture. Since its inception, Academy has honoured

Tulu Language and Literature

Tulu is one of the rich and ancient languages of the Dravidian family. Tulu speaking people are called Tulavas mostly found in Dakshina Kannada and Kasargodu district of Kerala. Tulunadu is bounded by the Kalyanapura river in the North, Arabian sea in the west, Western ghats in the east and the Payaswini/Chandragiri river in the south. Tulu has its own linguistic pecularities and shares a number of common features with Kannada and other Dravidian languages. Tulu has a very vast folk tradition which has its own pecularities. Folklore in Tulu is mainly found in the form of Paddanas, Sandi, Kabita, Uralu, Padipu, Nritya-padya, Gadi, Ogatu, Jogula, Ajjikathe etc., Tulu Brahmins are generally educated people in the Vedas and Shastras. Their folk songs are based on the episodes in the epics ‘Ramayana’ and ‘Mahabharatha’. Among the lower castes and untouchables the Bhuta dance tradition is prevalent. When compared with other Dravidian languages, Tulu has a very little classical literature. During the past 150 years, Tulu has adopted the Kannada script for its literary works. Even though the works of Tulu literature initiated by the Basel Mission Christians were only translations of the teachings of Christianity in the beginning, a few important  works like the Tulu English Dictionary etc., were published later. Collections of their folk songs etc., and
histories of Dakshina Kannada and Tulava Culture were also published. Works on Tulu Grammar, dialect and a doctoral theses on the structure of Tulu verb transformational analysis were published in the latter half of the Twentieth

Century. The Kerala and Karnataka governments have helped in developing lexicons and text books of Tulu. Many Kannada plays of Yakshagana and many religious works also have been translated into Tulu. Notable early writers of Tulu literature are Sankayya Bhagawat, Sheenappa Hegade, K.B. Narayana Shetty and M.V.Hegde. S.U.Phaniyadi established the Tulu Mahasabha in Udupi

in 1928. This gave great boost to Tulu literature and culture. It led to a linguisticcum- cultural movement in Tulu. The Tulu theatre and drama developed during this period. K.Doddanna Shetty,

K.N.Tailor, Rama Kirodiyan, U.R. Chandar, K.B. Bhandari, Machendranath, Ramananda Churya, Sitaram Kulal, P.S.Rao, Vishu Kumar etc. were the pioneers of the Tulu Theatre. The beauty of Tulu idioms, proverbs and expressions is very well represented in the social activities of this period. Yakshaganas, the spectacular folk dances of Karnataka are becoming popular even in Tulu nowa- days. In recent years, Tulu poets like Amrita Someswara, Anatharam Bangady, Purushottama Punja, Nityananda Karanth, Ashok A. Shetty, K.Shekar.V.Shetty,
G.Bayaru, Madhukumar and A.N.Shetty have composed Tulu Yakshagana epics. There are some organisation which are working for the propagation of Tulu language and culture. Tulu Koota of Mangalore is one such organisation. A few Tulu journals are also being brought out. Many other poets have made a name in Tulu literature. The notable among them are Mandara Keshava Bhat (his ‘Mandara Ramayana’ is a wonderful epic), Venkataraju Puninchittaya, P.V.Acharya, Ramakrishna Achar, Dumappa Master, Vamana Nandavar, K.V.Ravi, Tilakanath Manjeshwar, Ratna Kumar, Yeshwantha Bolur, Bhaskar Rao, Sitaram Kulal, Sitaram Alwa and Bannanje. Three Tulu classics in Grantha script, each of them more than 200 years old have been found in palm manuscripts. They are ‘Tulu Bhagavato’ (by Vishnu Tunga) ‘Kaveri’ and a prose work ‘Devi Mahatme’.
Many scholars are engaged in research on Tulu language, culture and folklore of the Tuluvas. They are D.N.S.Bhat, S.N.Bhat, M.Rama, S. Mallikadevi, U.P. Upadhyaya, William Madta, T. Gopalakrishna Bhatta, Sediyapu Krishna Bhatta, A. Acharya, Venkataraju Punincha ttaya, Vivek Rai, Amrita Someshwar, Sushila Upadhyaaya, Chinnappa Gowda, K. Padmanabha Kekhunaya and other young scholars. Some of the works on Tulu linguistics and folklore brought out are: ‘A comparitive study of Tulu Dialects’, Tulava Darshana’, ‘Folk epics of Tulunadu’, ‘Tulu Janapada Sahitya’, ‘Bhutaaraadhane’, Tulu Baduku’, ‘Paaddanagalu’, ‘Janapada Aaradhane Mattu Rangakale’, ‘Karaavali Jaanapada’, etc. Tulu Academy was founded by the State govt. in 1994. Research on Tulu language, folklore and history is carried on in the Kannada department of the Mangalore University and the Rashtrakavi Govinda Pai Research Centre at M.G.M.College, Udupi. Scholars in Pune, Annamalai and Trivandrum Universities are engaged in research in Tulu language. The Govinda

Pai Centre of Udupi has compiling a multi-volume on modern Tulu Lexicon.

Tulu Academy Award Winners

1995-96 : Kedambadi Jattappa Rai and Mandara Keshava Bhat; 1996-97: Ku.Shi. Haridasa Bhat; Keranji Seetharama Alwa, Mijar Annappa, B. Rama Kerodian; 1997-98 : Sunitha M. Shetty, Suryanatha U. Kamath,
K.N. Tailor, Malpe Shankaranarayana Samaga; 1998-99 : Amrita Someshwara, Venkataraj Punichittaya, Mankude Sanjeeva Shetty, M. Leelavathi; 1999-2000 : U.P. Upadhyaya, Kudakaii Vishwanatha Rai, Kolluru Ramachandra Rao, Sadananda Suvarna; 2000-2001 : Sushila Upadhyaya, P.S. Rao, B.S. Rao,
316 A Handbook of Karnataka Phalinche Ramaiah Shetty. 2001-02: K.V.Ramesh, B.A.Viveka Rai, Malpe
Ramadasa Samaja, Mahendranatha, Pundeswara. 2002-03: K.G.Vasantamadhava, Erya Lakshminarayana Alwa, B.Shinnappa Bhandari, Sahitya Balaga, Mumbai (Institutional)

Reference:  http//kannadasiri.kar.nic.in

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Kannada Literature

Kannada literature has a history dating back to at least 1500 years. This apart, the folk literature which began earlier, still runs parallel to the written form. Seygotta Sivarama’s ‘Gajashtaka’ is cited as an example of early folk literature. The oldest available work in Kannada is however, a book on poetics, called ‘Kavirajamarga’. Some controversy surrounds this work regarding the authorship, but the consensus is that it was written more likely by Srivijaya than king Nripathunga. The work not only discusses figures of speech like ‘rasa’ and ‘dhwani’, but also gives descriptions of the geographical boundaries
of Karnataka, as well as its life and culture.

Thumbalacharya is credited with having written ‘Chudamani’, a philosophical work, much earlier. But the earliest Kannada prose work is Sivakotiacharya’s
‘Vaddaradhane’ which even to this day is considered a masterpiece. It is a collection of 16 Jaina stories. These seem to have been based on an earlier
Prakrit commentary called ‘Bhagavathi Aradhana’.

Pampa’s ‘Vikramarjuna Vijaya’ based on ‘Mahabharatha’ and written in Champu style, which is a mixture of prose and poetry, unique to Kannada,is the earliest epic work in Kannada. Pampas influence on Kannada literature is so deep that T.N.Srikantaiah speaks of him as the Kalidasa of Kannada. Being a Jaina poet, he also wrote ‘Adipurana’ based on Jinasena’s ‘Mahapurana’.

Ponna who wrote ‘Shanthipurana’, and Ranna’s ‘Gadayuddha’ have earned them immortality as poets, were also Jainas. They lived in the 10th Century. Nagavarma II who belongs to the next century was also a Jaina poet and wrote ‘Kavyavalokana’, a book on poetics, and ‘Karnataka Bhashab hushana’ a Kannada grammar in Sanskrit. His ‘Vardhamanapurana’ was discovered only recently. Janna, a Jain poet again, wrote ‘Yashodhara Charithe’, a love story. Durgasimha, in llth century, wrote ‘Panchatantra’ based on Vasubhaga’s Sanskrit work, and it is a classic example of the ancient art of story telling. Rudrabhatta wrote ‘Jagannatha Vijaya’ based on ‘Vishnu Purana’, The last two were Brahmin poets.

The 12th century saw a sea of change in Kannada literature both in content and style. What caused this is the growth of Veerashaivism which was essentially
revolutionary in approach. It derecognised untouchability and saw women as equals. It liberated Kannada from the clutches of Sanskrit. The moving spirit behind this movement was Basaveshwara, who was a minister in the court of Prince Bijjala. His Vachanas which can be called prose-poems, have their moorings in folk-literature and folk-culture, and yearn to liberate man from the bondage of untruth and ignorance. They seek to provide happiness here and elsewhere. Allamaprabhu, Akkamahadevi, Channabasavanna, Siddarama, Madivala Machayya, Dohara Kakkayya, etc., were other Vachanakaras.

After Basavanna, the greatest influence on Kannada literature was Harihara, who used an innovative form called ‘Ragale’. His ‘Basavarajadevara Ragale’
and ‘Nambiyannana Ragale’ are the examples of this genre. His nephew Raghavanka introduced yet another form of poetry called ‘Shatpadi’ and apart from ‘Somanatha Charithe’ and ‘Siddarama Charithe’ and his ‘Harischandra Kavya’ is considered to be a masterpiece.

The Sixteenth Century saw Veerashaiva poets of extraordinary merit. Sarvajna who was real Vairagi in that he had no settled home, and no religion, wrote
“Sarvajna Padagalu’ in Vachana style. This work is really a compendium of wit and wisdom. Nijaguna Sivayogi who was a ruler, saint and scholar wrote
‘Viveka Chintamani’ an encyclopedia in Kannada.

Dasakoota or the Vaishnava movement was led by Purandara Dasa, who is also considered the father of Karnatic music. Through his Keerthanas, he propounded the Dwaitha Philosophy and gave an impetus to Bhakthi movement. Kanaka Dasa, though hailing from the Kuruba community, followed in the footsteps of Purandara Dasa.

Karnataka culture reached its zenith during the Vijayanagara empire. Naranappa’s (Kumaravyasa) ‘Karnataka Bharatha Kathamanjari’ or ‘Gadugina Bharatha’ as it is popularly known is the finest example of the literature of this period. This was followed by Lakshmisha’s ‘Jaimini Bharatha’ which is also an immensely popular work. Chamarasa’s ‘Prabhulingaleele’ is another notable work of this period.

Post-renaissance movement saw a four-lined folk-metre called ‘Sangatya’ which was particularly suitable for singing. Nanjundakavi who wrote ‘Kumararamana Kathe’ proved its multi-dimensional application. But it was Rathnakaravarni who, in ‘Bharathesha Vaibhava’, explored its full potential. The Wodeyars of Mysore gave a boost to Kannada literature. Particularly noteworthy is Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar’s period from 1672 to 1704. He himself wrote ‘Chikkadevaraja Binnapa’. Tirumalaraya’s ‘Chikkadevaraja Vijaya’ has Mysore history as its theme and is in Champu style. Singararya’s ‘Mitravinda Govinda’, translated from Harsha’s ‘Rathnavali’ is considered to be the earliest Kannada play. Another noteworthy poetess of this period is (Sanchi) Honnamma who wrote “Hadibadeya Dharma’ in Sangatya metre.

Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar continued the tradition of his predecessor. empunarayana’s ‘Mudramanjusha’ deserves a special mention. Wodeyar also started the Raja’s English School (1833) and this along with the expansion of Missionary activities, increased the Western influence on Kannada literature. Chamaraja Wodeyar’s period saw a new era in Kannada literature. M.S.Puttanna’s ‘Madiddunno Maharaya’, D.Venkatachalayya and Dr.B.V.Venkateshaiyya’s detective stories like ‘Parimala’ and ‘Arindamana Sahasagalu’, Galaganatha’s social and historical novels, Kittel’s dictionary, Cha.Vasudevarayya’s ‘Bala Bodhe’ belong to this period. Muddanna’s ‘Ramashvamedha’ is an epic episode in prose. This has a tinge of modem writing. Translated novels by B.Venkatacharya and Galaganath, mostly historical made a deep impact on readers.

In 1921, Professor B.M.Srikantayya heralded the ‘Navodaya’ movement. His ‘English Geethagalu’ was a free rendering of some great English poems. Around this period, and unknown to him, K.V.Puttappa (Kuvempu) had switched over from English writing to Kannada and the culmination of his work was ‘Sri Ramayana Darshana’ written in blank verse. Puttappa’s social novels such as ‘Kanurusubbamma Heggadati’ and ‘Malegalalli Madumagalu’ are equally well acclaimed. Among the works of the thirties, D.V.Gundappa’s ‘Manku Thimmana Kagga’ stands out as a jewel. It is considered to be unique in the sense that it contains ethical principles, philosophic truths and experiences of life. Samsa wrote many plays in Halegannada, of which ‘Vigada Vikramaraya’ is the best example.

It is interesting to note that except U.R.Ananthamurthy and Girish Karnad, all the five of the seven Jnanapeetah awardees in Kannada, Kuvempu, Da.Ra

Bendre, Shivarama Karantha, Masthi Venkatesha lyengar and V.K.Gokak have been writing since the Navodaya period. Da.Ra. Bendre won the award primarily for ‘Naku Thanti’ a metaphysical poetic work but his popularity is based more on his writings drawn from folk culture. Shivarama Karantha’s writings range from encyclopedea to novels, essays, drama and poetry. ‘Marali Mannige’ is his oft-mentioned novel, but ‘Bettada Jeeva’ ‘Chomana Dudi’ and ‘Mookajjiya

Kanasugalu’ are also noteworthy. His works mirror the cultural ethos of Dakshina Kannada. Masthi Venkatesha lyengar is primarily noted as short story writer,

his ‘Chennabasava Nayaka’ and ‘Chikaveerarajendra’ are historical novels dealing with degeneration of monarchy, and ‘Subbanna’ is a long story which reaches

metaphysical heights. V.K. Gokak began as a Navodaya poet but his magnum opus is ‘Bharatha Sindhu Rashmi’ which seeks to find answers for the modern

man’s dilemmas in ancient epics. Significantly, Ananthamurthy’s ‘Bhava’ also seeks inspiration from traditional wisdom.

K.S. Narasimha Swamy’s ‘Mysoora Mallige’, a collection of poems with love and separation as the theme is a landmark of the Navodaya period. G.P. Rajarathnam’s ‘Rathnana Padagalu’ perhaps stands unique in world literature in seeing truth a beauty in drunken man’s gay gibberish. Pu.Thi. Narasimhachar’s ‘Gokula Nirgamana’ has Krishna’s separation from Radha as its theme.and this again reaches spiritual heights. Gorur Ramaswamy lyengar chose the easy form to portray the life of rural Karnataka his ‘Halliya Chitragalu’ is considered the supreme example of his writings. His tradition was continued by A.N.Murthy Rao in ‘Hagaluganasugalu’ and M.R.Srinivasa Murthy in ‘Rangannana Kanasina Dinagalu’.

The period also saw a spurt of literary critisism. Of these T.N. Srikantaiya’s ‘Bharathiya Kavya Meemamse’ is considered to be a classic. A.R. Krishna Shastry nurtured a whole generation of writers through ‘Prabuddha Karnataka’, a periodical brought out by the Kannada Sangha of the Central College and
later shifted the publication to Mysore University. S.V.Ranganna, an English Professor, who had by this time established himself as a Kannada writer through
‘Ranga Binnappa’, wrote on literary criticism in ‘Shaili’ and ‘Ruchi’. V.Sitaramayya’s output varied from ‘Hana Prapancha’, an economic treatise, to ‘Pampa Yathre’ a travelogue, to host of writings, from poetry to literary criticism. R.S. Mugali wrote ‘Kannada Sahitya Charithre’ succinct and balanced history of Kannada Literature.

In the mid-forties the Navodaya movement gave way to Pragathisheela Chalavali. A.N. Krishna Rao was the torch bearer for this. The movement brought writers from their ivory tower to the common man. Though Anakru’s short stories are better examples from this genre of writing, than his novels, he is mainly noted for his novels such as ‘Sandhya Raaga’, Udaya Raaga’, ‘Nata Sarvabhouma’, ‘Grihini’ and ‘Kanneeru’. Basavaraja Kattimani, hailing from North Karnataka, wrote ‘Nee Nanna Muttabeda’, ‘Shivadara Janivara’ and ‘Nanoo Polisanagidde’ portraying the netherworld behind the facade of Kaavi and Khaki. Ta.Ra.Su started as a progressive writer with novels like ‘Hamsageethe’, ‘Masanada Hoovu’ and ‘Munjavinda Munjavu’ found his forte in historical novels woven around his birth place Chitradurga, and ‘Durgasthamana’ is the finest example of his writing. Niranjana who was an active communist during freedom struggle wrote such down-to-earth novels as ‘Doorada Betta’ and ‘Rangammana Vathara’ as well as ‘Chirasmarane’ based on agrarian movement, but his magnum opus is considered to be ‘Mrityunjaya’, dealing with Egyptian history.

Chaduranga who inspite of his close relationship with the Mysore Royal family was a rebel and wrote ‘Sarvamangala’ and ‘Uyyale’ both dealing with xtra-marital love. Interestingly, his ‘Vaishaka’ writen many decades later also deals with extra-marital relationship in a rural setting. Among the women writers Triveni, whose novels like ‘Bekkina Kannau’, ‘Sharapanjara’ and ‘Mucchida Bagilu’ were essentially psycho-analytical. Anupama, who drew themes from her rich experience as a medical practitioner in stories like ‘Aranyadallondu Aragini’, and M.K.Indira whose forte was the protrayal of Malnad life in novels such as ‘Phaniyamma’ were all offshoots of the progressive movement.

Next to the progressive movement was the Navya movement. This was influenced mostly by the post-war writers like T.S.Eliot, Auden, Ezra Pound, D.H.Lawrence, Sartre and Camus. Gopalakrishna Adiga was the foremost exponent of the Navya movement and his ‘Bhoomi Geetha’ is said to have been influenced by T.S.Eliot’s ‘Waste Land’. P. Lankesh’s collection of stories ‘Kurudu Kanchana’ and his absurd play ‘Teregalu’, Srikrishna Alanahalli’s long story ‘Kadu’, Shanthinatha Desai’s ‘Vikshepa’, Poornachandra Tejaswi’s ‘Nigoodha Manushyaru’, Nisar Ahmed’s poem like ‘Masthi’, ‘Ramanu Sattha dina’, U.R. Ananthamurthy’s stories like ‘Prashne’ and ‘Clip Joint’, Yeshwanth Chittala’s ‘Shikari’, Vyasaraya Ballala’s ‘Bandaya’ are some examples of the new writing in Kannada. Chandrashekara Kambara and A. K. Ramanujam widened the frontiers of Navya poetry. Kambara has a good command on the diction and tunes of the folk poetry, like Bendre, but who used them to embody the tensions of life caught between tradition and a new culture. He has made a mark as a poet, a novelist and a dramatist. His ‘Jokumara Swamy’ besides

other awards, has won the prestigeous Kamaladevei Chattopadyaaya Award. It is a hit play, with liveliness, good song and gaiety. A.K. Ramanujam, a remarkable poet, presented clear, vivid pictures with an apparent casualness. S.L.Byrappa who shot into fame with his ‘Vamshavriksha’ is one writer who has scrupulously avoided confining himself into any frame. Some of his celebrated works are ‘Anveshane’, ‘Grihabhanga’, ‘Thabbaliyu Neenade Magane’, ‘Daatu’, ‘Sartha’, ‘Mandra’ and ‘Thanthu’.

Post-Navya writing is sometimes called as Navyotthara Sahitya or Bandaya Sahitya, or even Dalita Sahitya. The writers belonging to this movement are
of the firm view that only Daliths can authentically write about their trials and tribulations, and anything written by others, however, impressive it might
be, will still remain second-hand experience. Still, it is interesting to note that Devanuru Mahadeva who does not like to classify himself into this or
that group or ‘ism’ has given some of the finest Dalit literature. His ‘Odalala’ and ‘Kusuma Bale’ have won many laurels. Chennanna Valikar and

Siddalingaiah are another notable Dalith writers. B.T. Lalitha Nayak, Aravlnda Malagatti and Geetha Nagabhushana are other important writers who are
identified with their notable Dalith works. G.Venkataiah of Maddur Taluk had written some books in 1940 itself highlighting the pains and pleasures of
Dalith people even before there was any such movement.

The Feminist movement began after the Dalit movement. Women writers started writing independently about their own experiences that had quite a different dimension. They not only questioned the male supremacy in society but also tried to bring about equality with men. The works of R. Kalyanamma, who published ‘Sarswathi’ a montly for 42 years, Nanjanagudu Tirumalamba who published ‘Sathi Hithaishini’ and then ‘Karnataka Nandini’. Sarawathi Bai Rajawade (Giri Bale) who had new attitude and a vision of modern education for women, Kodagina Gouramma, Belagere Janakamma, Shyamala Devi Belagaumkar and the like, gained prominence in 80’s and after, through the feminist writers of this movement. ‘Phaniyamma’ by M.K. Indira, ‘Itigeetike’ by Vijaya Dabbe, ‘Gandasuru’ by Veena Shanteshwar, ‘Sahana’ by Sara Abubakar, ‘Seetha Rama Ravana’ by H.V. Savitramma are some such quotable writings. The ‘Karnataka Lakhakiyara Sangha’ a feminist writers organisation founded in 1978, played an important role in giving a feminist touch to social values and also in mirroring them in the writings of women. ‘Streevani Praveshike’ edited by B.N. Sumitra Bai and N. Gayathri is noteworthy. Many women writers wrote books on different fields from a womens’ points of view. Among them mention may be made for their writings and related activities of Hemalatha Mahishi (Law), H. Girijamma and Leelavathi Devadas (Health), Vijaya and S. Malathi (Theatre), Namichandra (Science and Fiction) and Vaidehi (Fiction). B.N. Sumithra Bai, Vijaya Dabbe and many others are good feminist critics.

(The list is not exhaustive.) Feminist poets are large in number. Following this movement, discussions, seminars, workshops and conferences were held
on the questions of women and feminism at all levels in the State. ‘Women Studies’ was introduced as a subject for students of degree level, first in NMKRV
College, Bangalore and then in almost all Universities of the State. Any survey of Kannada literature would be incomplete without the mention of some writers, who while not specifically representing this or that school were still successful in drawing enormous number of readers towards them. Krishnamurthy Puranika is one such. At one time, his novels like ‘Dharmadevathe’ which faithfully depicted the middleclass life of old Mysore or Hyderabad Karnataka or Mumbai Karnataka were a rage among women readers. Likewise, N.Narasimhayya who wrote detective stories under the series ‘Patthedara Purushotthamana Sahasagalu’ was so successful that the series exceeded one hundred. He was never seen in any literary meet, it is doubtful if he ever got invited, nevertheless his books did inculcate the reading habit in school boys. Ma.Ramamurthy of Mandya District continued such type of writing of detective novels.

At the other end of the spectrum, we find the B.G.L.Swamy who blended humour and science writing so effectively that his ‘Hasiru Honnu’ about the botanical wealth around us, remains a classic many decades after its publication. His ‘Kaleju Ranga’ and ‘Kaleju Tharanga’ are master peices of humour, dealing
with his experiences as college teacher. ‘Thamilu Thalegala Naduve’ is a scholarly work which takes in its sweeps subjects like archaeology is veneered with
deceptive humour.

In the sphere of drama, Girish Karnad’s plays and performances are worth encore. His ‘Tugalaq’ and ‘Nagamandala’ with all its dramatic elements and high thoughts, made a big impact. ‘Hayavadana’ and ‘Agni mattu male’ are also notable plays. Karnad has given many plays drawing profusely from history,
folk lore and epics. Along with the above plays, ‘Yayati’ also may be cited as an example for this.

Similarly there are writers like C.K.Nagaraja Rao, Ma.Na.Murthy, Devudu Narashimha Shastry and K.V. Iyer who have scholarly novels like ‘Pattamahishi
Shanthala’, ‘Shanthala’, ‘Mahabrahmana’ and ‘Mahakshatriya’, and ‘Rupadarshi’. Travelogues are far too many even to make a brief mention. However
Shivaram Karanth’s ‘Apoorva Paschima’, A.N. Murthy Rao’s ‘Apara Vayaskana America Yathre’, Goruru’s ‘Americadalli Gorur’, popular detective story writer
T.K.Rama Rao’s ‘Golada Melondu Suttu’, N. Lakshminarayan’s ‘Nirdeshakana Videsha Yathre’, D. Javere Gowda’s ‘Videshadalli Nalku Vara’, Krishnananda
Kamat’s ‘Naanoo Americakke Hogidde’, Navarathna Ram’s ‘Pyarissininda Preyasige’, K. Anantharamu’s ‘Udaya raviya nadinalli’, Susheela Koppar’s ‘Paduvanada Pathramale’ may be cited as examples.

This can at best be only a cursory glance or bird’s-eye view of Kannada literature through many centuries. Omissions will be far too many. Nevertheless,
what has been given encompasses some of the best reading in Kannada language.*

Reference: http://kannadasiri.kar.nic.in