National Highways in Karnataka

The National Highways are very important highways which connect Metropolitan cities, State capitals, Ports etc. throughout the country. The length of the National Highways in 1961 was 1,269 km and in 188 A Handbook of Karnataka 1981 it was about 1,968 km. They were under the control of the Central Government previously. Since 1971, the National Highways are maintained by a separate wing of the State PWD, out of the Central funds. As in 1992- 93, there were seven National Highways traversing in the state, with a total length of 1,997 km. It was proposed to declare, another 13 roads with a length of 4,765 km as National Highways. During the last decade, 30 km of the National Highway No.4 has been widened from two lanes to four lanes. About 231 km length of the National Highway nos. 9, 13, 17 and 48 were widened,

from single lane to double. The Kozhikode-Kollegal section passing through Sultan Batheri, Gundlupet, Nanjangud, Mysore, T.Narasipur, Mugur, Uttamballi, and the road between Bangalore-Dindigal via Kanakapura, Halagur, Malavalli, Sattegal, Kollegal, Yelandur, Santhemarahalli and Chamarajanagar in the state were declared as NH-209 and NH-212 respectively on June-July 1999 and the work is in progress. The Government of India has declared the 193 km of Bijapur-Hubli road as the 13th National Highway in the State (NH-218) in October 2000. As a result, as on 2000 March, there were 13 National Highways traversing in the State totaling about 3,524 km. The second phase of Hubli-Dharwad by pass on Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) basis has been completed and commissioned for traffic. Under the Asian Development Loan Assistance, a length of 25 km. of the NH-7 has been taken up for converting it into four lanes (from Bangalore to Tamilnadu border near Hosur). In february 2004, NH-218 has been further extended from Bijapur upto Humnabad (220 kms.) via Jevargi in Gulbarga district. As a result Gulbarga district also figures in the country map of National Highways. Likewise the road linking Gundlupet with NH-212 has also been declared as NH-67 in february 2004. As a result as on 31-03-2005, there were 14 National Highways passing through the State with a road length of 3,973 km excluding the districts of Kodagu and Raichur which are deprived of National Highways, all other districts have National Highways passing through their jurisdictions. The total road length in 1981 was 98,523 km and an account of implementation of several road schemes, it went up to 1,21,266 k m in 1992. The roads which were in charge of P.W.D. increased from 32,177 km in 1956 to 64,628 km in 1981. The quality of the roads maintained by the P.W.D.was also improved. The cement concreted/asphalted road surface which stood at 3,858 km in 1956 increased to 26,022 km in 1979 and was 36,229 during 1992. The length of cement concrete roads has decreased substantially due to its recoating with black topped surface. Unmetalled roads in the control of P.W.D. in 1956 were 2,343 km when compared to 8,935 km in 1966 and during 1992 it was 11,089 km. In addition, 11,089 km roads have been transferred from the control of P.W.D. to the Zilla Parishads (1-4-1987). The Government has retransferred 10,000 km road length from the control of Zilla Parishads to the PWD on 18th February 1992. The aim was to improve Transport and Communications 189 them at the rate of 50 km per Assembly Constituency.

Besides, they are being upgraded into major district roads. For the development of Gulbarga division (Gulbarga, Bellary, Bidar, Raichur and Koppal Districts), roads and bridges are being constructed. During 1990-91 and 1991-92, a sum of Rs. 61.60
lakhs was spent on roads and bridges. In 1990, a scheme for the improvement of roads was launched. Under this programme, a sum of rupees twelve lakhswas spent on road works in each Assembly constituency. An amount of Rs. 867.08 lakhs was spent in 1990-91 and in 1991-92 Rs. 1,694.39 Lakhs.The total road length in the State by 1998 was 1,42,687 km comprising 2,335 km National Highways, 11,037 km State Highways, 28,301 km Major District Roads, 1,644 km Other District Roads, 42,791 km Village Roads,
31,583 km TDB Roads, 9,417 km Irrigation Dept. Roads, 2,582 km Forest Dept. Roads excluding 8,366 km of Municipality Roads and 4,665 km of Grampanchayati Roads. Among them, 97,392 km were surfaced, and others were unsurfaced Roads. The average road length per one lakh population is 288 km and the average road length per sq km is 64 km. These are above the national average of 238.8 km and 61.3 km respectively. During the 8th plan (1992-97), a sum of Rs. 42,717.24 lakhs were spent on laying and improving
of 8,537 km, asphalting 3,321 km of roads and building 1,323 major and minor Bridges within the State. During the 9th plan, a sum of Rs. 953 crores has been provided for construction, improvement and maintenance of roads and bridges in the state. During the year 2000, 72 roads and 17 bridges were completed with NABARD assistance. The government has signed with the Kalyani groups of India for the construction of Bangalore-Mysore Express Highway to be executed by the Kalyani Group of Companies on its own
investment, to be maintained for 30 years, handing it over in motorable condition to the State Government after recouping the expenditure incurred along with profit by way of toll fixed in consent with the State Government at regular intervals. As on December 2004, the total road length in the State was 1,44,130 km. comprising 3,973 Km of National Highways, 17,252 Km State Highways, 30,647 Km Major District Roads, 1620 Km of Other District Roads, 48,148 Km of Village Roads and 42,490 Km of Other Roads with an average of 246 Km Road length per one lakh population and an average road length of 70 km per 100 Sq. Km area NH-4 which falls under the Golden Quadrilateral Highway Project and NH 7 which come under the North the South Corridor Project of 6 lanes, planned at National level and being executed through National Highway Authority,
(NHAI) is under progress in the State.

For providing accessibility to villages, Integrated Comprehensive Rural Communication Programme was started in 1972-73. An amount of Rs. 9.63 crore was spent in the Sixth Plan period, for constructing about 1,803 km new roads. Between 1985-86 to 1991-92, an amount of Rs.1.60 crore was incurred for constructing 77 km of roads and some other Master Plan Rural Roads (1st Phase C.D. Works). Besides this, Minimum Needs Programme was started during 1974-75 and a sum of Rs. 53.77 crores was spent for connecting 1,398 villages with all-weather approach roads from 1974-75 to 1991-92. Till the end of 1991-92, the villages linked with All-weather roads were 12,649. It constitutes 47% of the total inhabited villages in the State numbering 27,028. As many as 6,747 villages were provided with Fair Weather Roads and 7,433 with Katcha roads which accounted for 25% and 27% respectively. The rest of the 199 villages were without approach roads. The Halli Heddari scheme was started in 1984-85. Under this scheme, till the end of 1991-92, 167 villages having a population of less than 1000 were provided with all-weather roads. The expenditure incurred was Rs. 827.26 lakhs. The scheme of approach roads to colonies of the Scheduled Castes was launched in 1983-84. A sum of Rs. 37.13 crores were spent from 1983-84 to 1991-92, for constructing about 2,099 km. road length. Construction of roads under people’s participation was launched in 1986-87, to give high priority to the rural road works which have local people’s participation. The Zilla Parishads also executing this programme. During 1987-88 to 1991-92 about 113 km. village limit roads were constructed/improved and an amount of Rs. 161.53 lakhs were spent. By 2000 among the 27,066 inhabitated villages in the State, 15,800 villages have All-weather roads, 8,026 villages have Fair weather roads, and 3137 villages have Katcha roads and the remaining 103 villages were not connected by any roads as such. By 2004, almost all the villages in the State are connected by approach roads.

CINEMA IN KARNATAKA

The Film industry in Karnataka has a history of over six decades. In their early phase, films produced in Karnataka were only based on themes from the Kannada Theatre. The first ‘Mooki’ (silent) film was produced and directed by Mohan Bhavanani with Yenakshi Rama Rao, Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaya, T.P. Kailasam, O.K. Nanda and other and it had the title ‘Mrichchakatika’. During the 1930s two Bombay Industralists, Haribhai R. Desai and Bhogial Dave established the first studio of Southern Indian in Bangalore named Surya Film Company and made about 40 silent films in about four years. During 1929, with the co-operation of Devudu Narasimha Sastri, Gubbi Veeranna and Algod of Belgium, an organisation named ‘Karnataka Pictures Corporation’ was established through which silent movies ‘Harimaya’, ‘Song of Life’ and ‘His Love Affair’ were produced. ‘Sadarame’, (1935), ‘Hemareddy Mallamma’ (1945), ‘Gunasagari’, ‘Bedara Kannappa’ (1954), ‘Bhutarajya’ and ‘Domingo’ were the prominent movies of that age with the last two being produced by Dr. Shivaram Karanth. Other notable films were ‘Sati Sulocaha’ ‘Samsara Nauka’, ‘Vasanthsena,’ ‘Purandaradasa,’ ‘Bhakta Kumbara,’ ‘Mahatma Kabir,’ ‘Krishnaleela,’ ‘Chandrahasa,’ ‘Bharathi,’ ‘Nagakannika’ and ‘Jaganmohini.’ The notable personalities who made an impact on the silver screen in the early times were T.P. Kailasam, M.G. Mari Rao, Gubbi Veeranna, R. Nagendra Rao, M.V. Subbiah Naidu, Tripuramba, C.T. Sheshachalam, M.V. Rajamma, B.R. Pantulu, Kemparaj Urs, Shanker Singh, B.V. Vithalacharya, H.L.N. Simha and B.S. Ranga, the last two of whom were instrumental in bringing the Kannada Film field from Madras to Bangalore. ‘Bedara Kannappa’ (1954) launched Rajkumar who later grew into a legend in the Kannada film industry and also won the Dada Saheb Phalke award in 1997. In the 1950’s the trend of social films began and the notable films of that decade were ‘Premadaputri,’ ‘Modala Thedhi,’ ‘School Master,’ ‘Kanyadana.’ ‘Adarshasati,’ ‘Bhakta Markandeya,’ ‘Ratnagiri Rahasya,’ ‘Nala Damayanti,’ ‘Bhookailasa,’ ‘Jagajyothi Basaveshwara.’ ‘Dashavatara,’ ‘Ranadheera Kantheerava’ and ‘Bhakta

Kanakadasa.’

The year 1964 was significant in the history of Kannada films for the
* contributed by T.G. Ashwathanarayana production of the first entirely colour movie ‘Amarashilpi Jakanachari’. The same year witnessed the release of ‘Naandi,’ a new wave film made by N. Lakshminarayan. In the 1960’s the man acknowledge by one and all as the greatest director in Kannada film history, Puttanna Kanagal, made memorable films, like ‘Bellimoda’ (1967), ‘Gejje Pooje’ (1968), ‘Sharapanjara’ and in the 70s movies like ‘Sakshatkara,’ ‘Nagara Havu’ etc. The first film based on Children’s subject ‘Makkala Rajya’ was also released during this period. In the 1970’s film makers started adopting Kannada novels by famous authors to the screen and this phenomenon became immensely popular. The novels of eminent novelists like Aa Na Kru, Ta Raa Su, Krishnamurthy Puranik, Triveni, M.K. Indira, Poornachandra Tejasvi, S.L. Byrappa, Sai Sute and T.K. Rama Rao were made into movies. Poems of great poet like Bendre, Kuvempu, K.S. Narasimhaswamy, Gopalakrishna Adiga etc., were converted into film lyrics and they gained acclaim.

The decades of the 1970’s is considered the age of the new-wave or experimental films through films like ‘Samskara’ (1970), ‘Vamsa Vriksha’ (1972),
‘Abachurina Post Office’ (1973), ‘Kadu’ (1974), ‘Hamsageethe’ (1975), ‘Chomana Dudi’ (1975), ‘Pallavi’ (1976), ‘Karavall’ (1977), ‘KanneshwaraRama’ (1977),
‘Ghatashraddha’ (1977), ‘Chitegu Chinte’ (1978), ‘Ondu Orina Kathe,’ ‘Ondaanondu Kaaladalli/’Maleyamakklu,’ ‘Spandana’ (all in 1978), ‘Kadu Kudure’ and ‘Arivu* (1979), ‘Yellindalo Bandavaru’ (1980), ‘Grahana’ and ‘Moorudarigalu’ (1981), ‘Bara’ (1982), and in recent years Avasthe, Pushpaka Vimana , Surya,
Tabarana Kathe, Kaadina Benki, Tarka, Idhu Sadhya, Santha Shishunala Sharif, Bannada Gejje, Hagalu Vesha, Nagamandala, Deveeri etc. The commercially successful films of that period were ‘Nagar Havu’ and ‘Bangarada Manushya’ (1972), ‘Yedakallu Goodada Mele’ and ‘Professor Huchchuraya’ (1973), ‘Upasane’ and ‘Bhootayyana Maga Ayyu,’ (1974), ‘Aparichita’ and ‘Parasangda Gendethimma’ (1978), ‘Mother,’ ‘Mithuna’ (1980) and ‘Gaali Maatu’ (1981), Manasa Sarovara (1982), Phaniyamma (1983), Anubhava (1984), Bettada Hoovu, Masanada Hoovu (1985), Malaya Maruta (1986), Ondu Muttina Kathe (1987), Suprabhata (1988), Sankranti (1989), Udbhava, ShabariMale SwamyAyyappa (1990), Ramachari (1991), Kraurya, Pallavi, Anuroopa, Khandavldeko Mamsavideko, Sankalpa, Bankar Margaiah, Geejagana Goodu, Savithri, Giddah, Ghata Shradda (President’s Gold Medal), Akramana, Mane, Tayi Saheba (President’s Gold Medal) (1997), Aparichita and Beladingala Bale. In the 1980s the Government of Katnataka granted 50% tax exemption to Kannada films completely made in Kamataka and it increased the subsidy amount to films. At present all Kannada Films produced and processed entirely in the State is eligible for Rs. 2.50 lakhs (black & white) and Rs. 3.50 lakhs (colour). L.V. Prasad established a Colour Processing Laboratory in Bangalore, Besides, Sanketh, a recording studio of the Nag Brothers and the

Chamundeshwari studio were started. The availability of good infrastucture, encouragement received from the Government and the viewership had a cascading effect and there was a jump in the number of films made each year, in this decade.Films based on political and social themes, like ‘Accident,’ ‘Antha,’ ‘Bara,’ ‘Chakravyuha,’ ‘Aasphota,’ etc., were made in this decade. Films that were ommercially successful in this decade were ‘Ahtha,”Chakravyooha,’ ‘Hosabelaku,’ ‘Haalu Jenu,’ ‘Mududida Taavare Aralithu,’ ‘Bandhana,’ ‘Benkiya ale,’ ‘Anubhava,’ ‘Anand,’ ‘Rathasaptami,’ ‘Neebareda Kaadambari,’ ‘Premaloka,’
‘Pushpaka Vimana,’ ‘Ranadheera,’ ‘Suprabhata,’ ‘Sangliyana,’ ‘Nanjundi Kalyana,’ ‘Avale Nanna Hendathi,’ ‘Hendthige Helabedi,’ ‘Indrajit’ ‘Dada,’ ‘Deva,’
‘Anjadagandu,’ ‘Hridaya Haadithu,’ ‘Gagana,’ ‘CBI Shankar’, ‘Gajapathi Garvabhanga,’ ‘Ramachari,’ ‘Chaitrada Premanjali,’ ‘Bhanda Nanna Ganda,’ ‘Jeevan Chaitra’ and ‘Aakasmika’.

Even though the background instrumental music was in vogue in silent films, songs were sung in the first talkie film in 1934. It is said that the advent of modern orchestra in films was due to the efforts of P. Kalinga Rao in 1941. Playback Singing became popular later. Music directors like P. Shamanna, R. Sudarshan, G.K. Venkatesh, T.G. Lingappa, Vijaya Bhaskar, Rajan Nagendra and Hamasalekha have become popular. B.V. Karnath, Prema Karanth, Girish Kasaravalli, M.S. Satyu, Siddalingaiah, Girish Karnad, Suvarna, G.V. Iyer, Nagabharana and Baraguru Ramachandrappa are film directors who have won national awards. A promising young women film maker is Kavitha Lankesh (Deveeri Film). Many Kannada films have won a large number of State and National awards
over this period of time. Kamataka Film Chamber of Commerce was started in Bangalore in 1944. Some amateur film societies are producing film in 17 mm or 8mm cameras. These are ‘Assema,’ ‘Srishtri,’ ‘Swajan’ and ‘Suchitra’ Societies.

The first regional office of the National film Archives of India, Pune, was started in Bangalore in 1982 at Chowdiah Memorial Hall. It is engaged in collecting and preserving old and memorable films made in all the regional language of South India. The popular film studios of Karnataka are Premier Studio at Mysore and Chamundeshwari, Sree Kantheerava and Abhimaan at Bangalore. Many colour laboratories, processing units and recording units are also functioning in Bangalore, Which is the film city of Karnataka. Apart from veteran “Karnataka Ratna” Dr. Rajkumar who has won prestigious Dada Phalke Award, the Kannada screen has produced a host of talented artistes like Ashwath, Balakrishna, Narasimha Raju, Kalyan Kumar, Udaya Kumar, Gangadhar, Vishnuvardhan, Ambarish, Prabhakar, Sridhar, Ravichandran, Kashinath, Shankar Nag, Ananth Nag, Lokesh, Rajesh, Sudharshan, Srinath, C.R. Simha, Dwarkish, Vajramuni, Ramesh Arvind,
Ramgopal etc., and actresses like M.V. Rajamma, Leelavathi, B,V, Radha, Jayamma, Pandari Bai, B. Saroja Devi, Jayanthi, Kalpana, Aarti, Bharati,Manjula, Harini, Jayamala, Jayalakshmi, Malashri, Sudha Rani, Vaishali Kasaravalli, Tara etc. G.V. Iyer is the first to make the Film in Sanskrit “Adi Sankaracharya”

in 1984, which won for him the nations highest award. He further made “Madhwacharya” in Kannada in 1986 and “Ramanujacharya” in 1988 in Tamil trying to bring out the teachings of these saint, philosophers, through the medium of Cinema. Iyer again won the national award for his film “Bhagavadgeetha” in 1993.
The following films have won National Award under different Categories 1. Bedara Kannappa (1955); 2. Samskara (1970); 3. Chomana Dudi (1976); 4. Ghatashraddha (1978); 5. Dangeyedda Makkalu (1980); 6. Phaniyamma(1983); 7. Adi Shankaracharya (1984) 8. Tabarana Kathe (1987) 9. Pushpaka Vimana (1988); 10. Jamboo Savari (1990) 11. Tayi Saheba (1997) 12. Deveeri (1999) 13. Kanoor Heggadithi (2000)

Festivals and Fairs in Karnataka

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The Hindus have several religious holy days, occasions of festivals and fasts throughout the year. Some of the important festivals for Hindus are:

  • New Year Day or Ugadi (the first day of Chaitra month);
  • Ramanavami (the birth day of Lord Rama, the ninth day of Chaitra);
  • Basava Jayanthi the birth day of Basaweshwara (Akshayatritiya);
  • Shankara Jayanthi the birth day of Acharya Shankara (Vaishaka Shuddha Panchami);
  • Kara Hunnime (full moon day of Jyestha, a festival for peasants);
  • Ashadha Ekadashi (the eleventh day of the bright half of Ashadha);
  • BheemanaAmavasya (New Moon day of Ashadha);
  • Nagapanchami the festival of Serpent God (on the fifth day of Shravana);
  • Gokulashtami, the birth day of Lord Krishna (the eighth day of the dark fortnight of Shravana);
  • Ganesh Chaturthi (fourth day of the bright half of Bhadrapada when God Ganesh is worshiped);
  • Navarathri or Dasara (first ten days of Ashweeja Masa);
  • Deepavali (thirteenth day of dark half of Ashvija) and the festival of light and day to worship Goddess of Wealth Lakshmi (lasts for five days);
  • Bhogi and Makara Sankranthi (on the 13th and 14th January, respectively);
  • Mahashivarathri 13th or the 14th day of the dark fortnight of Magha, a festival in honour of God Shiva; and
  • Holi or Kamana Habba, marking the death of Kama (God of Love) on the full moon day of Phalguna, marked in places with much noise and gay abandon.

In many places, Navarathri is also celebrated as Nada Habba (State festival) on Vijayadashmi day (the victorious tenth day), the statue of Goddess Chamundeshvari is taken in a colourful procession to Bannimantapa with all pomp and pageantry, consisting of tableaux of historical episodes, infantry, mounted horses, Bharat Scouts and Girl Guides, NCC., Bharat Seva Dal etc. Rama Navami and Ganesh Chaturthi are marked by public celebrations accompanied by speeches, dance and music recitals. Kodavas have three important festivals like Koil Muhurta, Cauvery Sankramana and Huthri (harvest festival). The chief Muslim festivals are Id-ul-fitar or breaking the fast, which marks the conclusion of Ramazan; Idul-ul-Zuha or Bakrid which is held on the ninth day of the month called Zil-hajah and the Shab-e-Barat which is celebrated during the evening of the fifteenth day of the month of Shaban. Moharram is celebrated publicly in many places by honouring symbols called tabuts. The Christians observe the New Year day, Good Friday, Ascension day. Feast of St. Joseph, Easter Sunday (the Day of Resurrection), birth day of Mary, Christmas (the birth day of Christ), Thanks Giving Day, Harvest Festival and church anniversary.

The Jains celebrate most of the Hindu festivals in their own way and according to their own tradition and they give importance for fasting, praying and hearing the recitation of the religious texts. Some of the important festivals observed by them are Chaitra Pratipad (Ugadi) to commemorate the victorious
Digvijaya of Bharata, son of Teerthankara Adinatha (Vrishabhadeva); Mahavira Jayanthi (Chaitra Shukla Trayodashi); Dasara (Vijayadashami) is believed to
be the date when Adinatha attained Kevala Jnana or enlightment and the date when his son Bharata secured his disc or Chakraratna); Deepavali (celebrated as the date of Mahanirvana of Mahavira and they worship Lakshmi and Jnana Lakshmi) and Shivaratri (celebrated as Jinaratri as Adinatha is believed to have attained salvation on the dark 14th of Magha). The Sikhs observe Guru Nanak’s birth day of Karteeka Pournima and Gurudwara inauguration day at Nanak Jhira, Bidar with enthusiasm and pomp with ‘akhand pathan’ of Guru Granth Sahib. Kirtan and Satsang attract a large number of Sikhs from many places.

Jatras:

Every year, the Jatras (fairs) are held in honour of village dieties (grama devathas) generally after the harvest takes place. In Hindu temples, Muslim dargahs, Jain bastis and in other holy places of worship people celebrate annual festivals. Men,women, people of rural and urban areas take part in
these jatras with full enthusiasm without discrimination of caste, creed and religion. Itinerary merchants open their stalls to sell toys, sweets, sarees,
vessels, bangles and other items during these jatras. Cattle fairs are also held in many places during the jatras and these are the centres of large trade
and commerce. Jatras promote social and religious harmony among various sections of the society.

Place Name

Month*

Deity/Saint in whose honour the jatra is held

# days

Approximate attendance

Bagalkot dt,Sivayogamandir,Badami taluk Jan.Feb. Hanagal Kumara Swamy 4 50,000
Bangalore district,Bangalore city,Nagartharapete Apr. Dharmaraya (Karaga) 1 5 lakhs
Basavanagudi Nov. Basavanna,(Groundnut fair) 1 50,000
Hanumanthanagar Aug. Kumaraswamy 3 3 lakhs
Bangalore Rural dt.,Huskur, Anekal taluk Feb. Mar. Madduramma 1 40,000
Magadi Apr. Ranganatha 1 1 lakh
Melinajuganahalli,
Doddaballapur taluk
Dec. Ghati Subrahmanya 1 1 lakh
Shivagange
Nelamangala Taluk
Jan Gangadhareshwara 7 50,000
Belgaum dt.,Panth Balekundri,Belgaum taluk Oct.Apr. May Datta Maharaj 3 25,000
Saundatti Nov, Dec Yellamma devi 1 lakh
Handi Badaganatha
Khanapur Tq. Feb.(Shivaratri) Kalabhairava 2 50,000
Chinchili, Raibag taluk Feb Mayakkaa 1 1 lakh
Bellary dt.,
Mailara, Hadagali taluk
Apr. Mailaralinga 4 2 lakhs
Hampi, Hospet taluk Nov. Virupaksha 4 2 lakhs
Bellary Feb. Malleshwara 7 80,000
Kurugodu, Bellary Tq. Apr. Basaveshwara 2 50,000
Sandur Nov. Kumaraswamy 4 20,000
Yashvantanagar,Sandur taluk Apr. Siddarameshwara 2 50,000
Bidar dt.,
Basavakalyana
(Shawwal) Hazrat Syed ,
Tajuddin Bagsawar ,
Urus
5 25,000
Basavakalyan Apr. May Basaveshwara 3 50,000
Humnabad Dec. Veerabhadra 7 30,000
Bijapur dt. ,
Bijapur
Jan.Feb. Siddeshwara 8 30,000
Chamarajanagar dt. ,
Mahadeshwara Hills,
Kollegal taluk
Oct.Nov. Malai Mahadeshwara 7 1 lakh
Chikmagalore dt. ,
Inam Dattatreya Peetha,,
Chikamagalur Tq.
Mar. Dattatreya-Bababudan 3 25,000
Antarghatta,
Tarikere taluk
Feb. Antarghattamma 10 1 lakh
Chitradurga dt. ,
Nayakanahatti,
Challakere taluk
Mar. Thippe Rudra 15 45,000
Dakshina Kannada dt. ,
Dharmasthala
Nov. Manjunatheshwara 3 1,00,000
Davanagere dt. Mar Duggamma 1 80,000
Yalebethur,Davanagere taluk Jan.(once in 3 years) Marikamba 1 80,000
Dharwad dt.,Yamanur, Navalgund Tq. Mar.Apr. Raja Bagh Savar Urus 1 20,000
Dharwad Aug. Ulvi Basavanna 1 30,000
Dharwad Feb. Murugendra 1 30,000
Hubli Feb. Siddharudha 1 1 lakh
Gadag dt.,Gadag Apr. Thotada,Siddalingeshwara 1 20,000
Mukti Mandira,Shirahatti taluk Feb. Dharama Rathotsava 7 More than 1 lakh
Gulbarga dt.Gulbarga Mar. Sharana Basavappa 15 1 lakh
Gulbarga Zekhaida Khaja Bande Nawaz 3 1 lakh
Diggi, Shahapur taluk Aug. Sangamanath 3 50,000
Ganagapur(Deval),Afzalpur taluk Feb. Dattatreya 5 50,000
Hassan dt.,Shravanabelagola (Once in 12 years) Mahamastakabhisheka of Gomateshwara 13 2-3 lakhs
Haveri dt.Shishuvinal,Shiggaon taluk Mar. Shishunal Shariff 1 20,000
Guddada Guddapura
Ranebennur Tq.
Sep.Oct. Mailara Lingeshwara 2 25,000
Kodagu dt.Bhagamandala,Madikeri taluk Oct.Nov. Cauvery 2 20,000
Kolar dt.Thoranahalli,Malur taluk Jan. Sappalamma 10 30,000
Avani, Mulbagal taluk Thalakayalubetta, Feb. Ramalingeshwara 10 30,000
Sidlaghatta taluk Feb. Venkataramana 10 25,000
Nandi, Chikkaballapur Tq. Feb. Bhoga and Yoga Nandeeshwara 7 40,000
Doddakurugodu, (Viduraswatha Gouribidanur Tq. Apr. Vidurnarayana 8 40,000
Devaragudipalli, Bagepalli taluk May. Gadadam Venkataramana 16 30,000
Koppal dt.Koppal June Gavisiddeshwara 5 20,000
Kuknur May Gudneshwara 1 50,000
Mandya dt.Melcote,Pandavapur taluk Mar.Apr. Chaluva NarayanaVairamudi 6 1 lakh
Adichunchanagiri, Nagamangala taluk Jan.Feb Bairava 10 30,000
Srirangapattana Jan. Ranganatha 1 25,000
Mysore dt.Chamundi Hills, Mysore Oct. Chamundeshwari 3 50,000
Talakadu, Nov. Dec.(once Panchalinga
T.Narasipur taluk in 12 years) Darshana 7 2 lakhs
Nanjangud Mar.Apr. Srikanteshwara 15 75,000
Mudukuthore,T.Narasipur taluk Feb.Mar. Mallikarjuna 3 25,000
Raichur dt.Raichur Aug. Syed Shams Alam,Hussain Ali Urus 1 50,000
Devarbhupur,Lingasugur Tq. Feb.Mar. Amareshwara 1 50,000
Shimoga dt.Shimoga Apr. Kote Anjaneya 3 20,000
Islapura, Shimoga Tq. Jan. Guddakal 2 80,000
Pulangere, July Venkataramana 1 30,000
Sagar Jan (Once

in 3 years)

Marikamba 9 40,000
Humcha, Hosanagar Tq. Tq. Mar. Padmavati and

Parshwanatha

1 10,000
Tumkur dt.,Siddaganga, Tumkur Feb Siddhalingeshwara 10 50,000
Yadiyur, Kunigal taluk Apr. Siddhalingeshwara 7 50,000
Devarayanadurga Apr./Mar Narasimha 1 50,000
Udupi dt.Udupi Jan.(Once in 2 years) Lord Krishna / paryaya 7 50,000
Kollur, Kundapur Tq. Nov. Mookambika 10 1,00,000
Subrahmanya,Sullia Tq. Dec. Subrahmanya 1 25,000
Uttara Kannada dt. Banavasi Dec. Madhukeshwara 2 1 lakh
Sirsi Mar (Once in
2 years)
Marikamba 7 1 lakh
Sonda(Swadi), Sirsi taluk May Vadiraja 5 25,000
Ulvi, Supa taluk Jan.Feb Channabasaveshwara 8 50,000
Gokana, Kumta taluk Mar. (Shivaratri) Mahabaleshwara 1 50,000
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Religions in Karnataka

Karnataka is a land of many religions. Every religion has contributed in its own way in shaping the life and activities of the people and promoting the culture of Karnataka. Majority of people in Karnataka are adherent to Hinduism and the other major religions of the State are Buddhism, Christianity, Jainism, Islam and Sikkhism. According to 1981 census the population and the percentage of the total population of different religions were as follows (The first figure in the bracket indicates the population and the second figure is the percentage of the total population): Buddhists (42,251;0.05); Christians

(7,73,500; 2.08); Hindus 3,18,52,029; 85.77); Jains (2,84,508; 0.77); Muslims (41,63,691; 11.21); Sikhs (6,401; 0.02); other religions and persuations (12,901;0.04) and religions not stated (433, negligible).

According to 1991 census the population and the percentage of the total population of different religions and religions not stated were as follows (the first figure in the bracket indicates the population and the second figure is the percentage of the total population : Buddhists (73,012 – 0.16), Christians
(8,59,478 – 1.91), Hindus (3,84,32,027 – 85.45), Jains (3,26,114 – 0.73), Muslims (52,34,023 – 11.64), Sikhs (10,101 – 0.02), other religions and persuations (6,325 – 0.01) and religion not stated (36,121 -0.08). According to 2001 census the population and the percentage of the total population of different religions are as follows (the first figure indicates the population and the second figure is the percentage of the total population) Buddhists 393300, 0.74; Christians 1009164, 1.90; Hindus 44321279, 83.86; Jains 412659,0.78; Muslims 6463127,12.23; Others 115460, 0.22; Religion not stated 120247, 0.23; Sikhs 15326,0.02.

Hinduism:

Hinduism comprises of several sects and faiths. The Hindu Code denotes all persons who profess Hindu religion either by birth by Hindu parents or by conversion. All Indians who are not Muslims, Christians, Parsees or Jews, can be termed as Hindus. Hinduism according to Hindu Law includes followers of Vedic tradition, Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists, Veerashaivas, Arya Samajists, Bramhos and the followers of aministic cults including Bhuta worship etc. There are a number of cults and religious practices, among Hindus. Gokarna is an important Shaiva centre of great antiquity. Pranaveshwara temple at Talagunda is one of the oldest among the Shiva shrines of India. Shankaracharya (circa 788-820) visited Karnataka and the Sringeri Peetha is one of the four mathas believed to have been founded by him in India. He preached the doctrine of Monism or Advaita, according to which Brahma or the Supreme Being alone is real and the universe is illusory or Maya. He advised people to worship any of the six deities, Shiva, Vishnu, Shakti, Kartikeya, Ganapathi or Surya. In addition to Sringeri, Shankara Mathas were also founded later at Kudali, Shivaganga, Avani and Sankeshwara in Karnataka. Many groups of Brahmanas like the Badaganadu, Mulukanadu, Babburakamme, Kota, Karade, Hoysala Karnataka, Uluchukamme, and Chitpavan are adherents of the school of Shankara in Karnataka.

Veerashaivism is a full blown offshoot of earlier Shaivism. Five Acharyas had earlier taught this cult. It was popularised by Basava (circa 1131-1167), the Treasurer of Kalachuri Bijjala of Kalyana. Basava and his contemporaries preached their religion in Kannada. The Veerashaiva teachers preached through Vachanas (poetic-prose) and they propagated the worship of Shiva and the leading of a life of morality and condemned social evils like caste differences and untouchability. Basava stressed the dignity of labour by his statement ‘Kayakave kailasa’ (‘worship through work’) and wanted every Veerashaiva to follow some useful profession to earn his rightful livehood. Jedara Dasimayya and Ekantada Ramayya, two saints who had preceded Basava and contemporaries of Basva like Allama Prabhu, Channabasava, Siddarama, Madivala Machayya (a washerman), Kakkayya (a cobbler), Hadapada Appanna (a barber) and women like Akka Mahadevi, Akka Nagamma, Neelambika and Muktayakka were among those who composed Vachanas and propounded this philosophy. The Veerashaivas are a major section in the section and are recognised by the Ishtalinga which they wear on their body. The practice of ‘dasoha’ led to the starting of free hostels by the Veerashaiva Mathas and in the long run to educational institutions. The Veerashaivas are rendering yeoman service in the field of education in the state. Natha Pantha, believed to be a blend of Mahayana Buddhism and Shaivism, was also popular in Karnataka. Natha Pantha Mathas are found in many parts 88 A Handbook of Karnataka

beginning from Handi Badaganath in Belgaum District to Kadri and Vittala in Dakshina Kannada. Adichunchangiri in Mandya was once a centre of this cult. Dattatreya worship (influenced by the Natha Pantha) is a popular cult in Karnataka. Narasimha Saraswathi (1378-1455) believed to be an ‘avatara’ of Dattatreya had visited Bidar and is described to have cured Bahamani Sultan, Allaudin of some serious sickness. Ganagapur in Gulbarga district, Kurugadda in Raichur District and Baba Budangiri in Chikamagalur district are a few notable centres of Dattatreya worship in Karnataka. Another form of Shaivism that was and is popular in Karnataka is the worship of Mailara and his consort Malachi (Malawa). Centres of this worship are found at Adi and Mangsuli in Bidar district, Mailara in Bellary district, Guddadaguddapur in Haveri district and Bellur in Mandya District. Promoters of this cult, wearing red robes and a cap made of bear skin are found even today and are called Goravas or Vaggayyas. Vaishnavism is another old religion in Karnataka. Some of the early Ganga rulers were also Vaishnavas. Ramanuja (1017-1137) who was born in Tamil Nadu, came to Karnataka during the beginning of the twelth century. Ramanuja taught alified monism or Vishishtadwaitha. Vishnu is the Supreme Deity, accompanied by his consort Lakshmi and she represents divine grace. Lakshmi is the mediator between God and men. That is why this religion is called Srivaishnavism. Ramanuja try to preach to all in the society and even admitted the ‘untouchables’ into the temples on specified days in a year. Many fine Vaishanava temples including the one at Belur in the Hoysalas style were constructed during this time. Melkote has the famous Cheluvarayaswamy temple and Mysore City has the famous Parakala matha of this cult. After Ramanuja came Acharya Madhwa (1238-1317) who was born at Pajaka near Udupi. He preached the philosophy of Dualism or Dwaita and worship of Vishnu, who is the Supreme Diety according to him. The teachings of both Ramanuja and Madhwa, who propounded Bhakti (devotion) gave an impetus to the Bhakti Movement of North India. He started eight Mathas to conduct
the worship of the Lord Krishna in turns. Uttaradi Matha at Hospet and Raghavendra Brindavana at Mantralaya in Andhra Pradesh are other noted centres of this sect.

Worship of Shakti or the Mother Deity is found in various forms in different parts of the state. Most of the villages have village deities who are believed to protect the villages. The epidemics like cholera, small pox, plague etc. are believed to be caused by the anger of the Mother Deities. These deities are
also called Gramadevatas under different names like Maramma, Malagamma, Yellamma, Renukamma, Durgamma, Dyamawwa and Kalikadevi in different parts of the state. A village deity is often represented by an image, a shapeless stone or some other symbol and in many places, She has shrines built in her honour. There can be wooden images also, some of them gaily painted. Blood sacrifice was also offered to these deities. Yellamma at Saudatti, People 89 Kolaramma at Kolar, Marikamba at Sirsi, Mayavva at Chincholi (Belgaum district) and Chandralamba at Sannati are some notable centres of such deities. The Jatra of Madduramma at Huskur (where the priests are from the Scheduled Castes) near Bangalore is attended by scores of thousands.

Buddhism:

Buddhism was popular in Karnataka from the time of Ashoka. It is believed that Ashoka had sent Buddhist missionaries to Banavasi. Hiuen- Tsiang who visited Karnataka in about 640 says that Banavasi country had hundreds of Viharas. At Sannati and Kanaganahalli (Gulbarga district), remains of Stupas of Shatavahana times have been unearthed. There are Buddist monuments of Chalukyan times at Badami and Aihole in Bijapur district. Tharabhagavati images have been found at Belgavi (Balligave, Shimoga Dt.) and Koliwada (Dharwad Dt). Many Buddhist remains were unearthed in and around Hampi. Some of the centres of Buddhist worship as in Kadiri later were converted into centres of Shaiva worship and Manjushri at Dharmastala became Manjunatha. They came under the influence of the Natha Panthis. There are worderful 10th Century bronze images at Kadri which include Lokeshwara. There is a Mahabodi Society at Bangalore active both in social and spiritual activites, of late many SC’s have embraced Neo-Buddhism.

Jainism :

Jainism has been an important religion of Karnataka and it has contributed quite substantially to the culture of Karnataka. Bhadrabahu, the last Shrutakevalin, migrated to Karnataka with a large number of followers including a Maurya prince and spent his last years at Shravanabelgola. Banavasi Kadambas built Jaina basti at Halsi, the ancient Palashika in Belgaum dt. The Gangas highly patronised Jainism and famous Gomata monolith at Shravanabelagola was erected (Circa 982) by Chavundaraya noted scholar and Ganga general. Bastis were built at Shravanabelgola, Manne and Kambadahalli during the Ganga rule. There were Jaina scholars like Pujyapada (Devanandi) and Kundakunda in the Ganga court and Kannada authors Nemichandra and Chavundaraya were also Jains. The Kadambas, the Rashtrakutas and Chalukyas of Kalyana were the great patrons of Jainism. Great mathematician Mahavira, the earliest Kannada poets Srivijaya, Pampa, Ponna and Ranna were Jains. Gomata monoliths were erected at Gommatagiri in Hunsur Taluk (Mysore district), Karkala in Udupi dt. (1432), Venuru (1603)
and recently at Dharmasthala (1982) in Dakshina Kannada District. The Jains in Karnataka are mostly followers of the Digambara sect and Swetamabaras came in recent years from Gujarat and Rajasthan mainly to trade and are found mostly in commercial towns and cities.

Sikhism :

Sikhism also has left Its Imprint on Karnataka. Guru Nanak is believed to have visited Bidar and there is Guru Nanak Jhira Sahib in his memory. One of the close disciples (Panch Piyares) of Guru Govind, Bhal Sahib Chand (later known as Sahib Singh), a barber, was from Bidar and he was among the five who were initiated to the Khalsa. Considerable number of Sikhs took service under Hyder and Tipu and many have come and settled 90 A Handbook of Karnataka down in the cities of Karnataka in recent decades. There are Gurudwaras at Bangalore, Gulbarga and Hubli.

Islam :

Islam entered Karnataka soon after its propagation in Arabia as Arabs were trading at the ports of Karnataka. Some of the Arabs had settled on the West Coast and inscriptions speak of them as Tajjikas. As testified by Sanjan plates, the Rashtrakutas had a Tajjika Governor and Arab travellers also speak of Muslim settlement in the major commercial centres of Rashtrakuta empire. Their guild called Hanjamana (Anjuman) is mentioned in the records of the Kadambas of Goa, Alupas of Dakshina Kannada and of Vijayanagara. The Navayats and the Mapilles (Moplas) are the Muslims from Karnataka Coast, who follow the Shafi sect like the Arabs. The Afghan, Turks, Persians etc. are called Dakhni Muslims, who speak Urdu and belong to Hanafl sect. Islam introduced the Persian and the Arabic languages into Karnataka and Dakhni Urdu also developed in the South. Fine Indo-Sarsenic monuments at Gulbarga, Bidar, Bijapur, Sira and Srirangapatna have the pride of place in the history of the arts of Karnataka. The Sufi sect is also popular in Karnataka and the tomb of Bande Nawaz Gesu Daravaz at Gulbarga is higly venerated by all. The Sufi received royal patronage by Bahmani rulers and they were active at Gulbarga, Bidar and Bijapur. The Muslims introduced coffee, paper and agarbatti [joss stick) industry into Karnataka. Tipu introduced sericulture.

Christianity:

With the advent of the Portugese, Catholic Christians entered Karnataka. Portugese founded factories at Mangalore, Kundapura and Honavar where they also tried to secure converts to their religion in the days of Vijayanagara. Inquisition, epidemic and famine forced many Catholic Christians to leave Goa and enter Karnataka. Keladi rulers encouraged their migration as the Christians had acquired new techniques of agriculture and animal husbandry. Keladi Channamma granted a site to them to build a church at Mangalore. During the beginning of the 19th century, Protestant missions like the Basel Mission, the London Mission and the Wesleyan Mission entered Karnataka. The London Mission was first founded at Bellary in 1810 and from there they came to Bangalore in 1820. The wesleyans started their activites in princely Mysore from 1821 and the Basel Mission started its activity in Mangalore in 1834 and later spread to other places like Dharwad, Hubli, Haveri and Gadag. The Basel Mission started the first Kannada news paper, ‘Mangalura Samachara’ in 1843 and printed Kannada classics which were found written on palm leaves. Both Catholics and Protestants popularised English education in Karnataka by opening schools at Mangalore, Madikeri, Bangalore, Bellary, Dharwad and Belgaum. They also took up service in the field of healing and ran many hospitals. Modern Religious Movements: The modern religious movements like Brahma Samaj, Arya Samaj, Theosophical Society, Ramakrishna Mission, Chinmaya Mission and Prajapitha Brahma Kumari Ishwariya Vishwavidyalaya have influenced the life of Karnataka by starting their activities in the State.

The Theosophical Society started functioning in the State in 1886 with its first Lodge at Bangalore City followed by Bangalore Cantonment Lodge in the same year and subsequently started its branches in various places like Mangalore (1901) and Dharwad (1902). The Ramakrishna Mission was first started at Bangalore in 1904 followed by one at Mysore in 1927. Swami Vivekananda had visited Belgaum and Mysore in 1892 and the then Mysore ruler Chamaraja Wodeyar extended financial help to Swami Vivekananda for his journey to Chicago. A trusted follower of Swami Vivekananda, Alasinga Perumal (1865-1909) was from Chikmagalur and he founded the journal ‘Brahmavadin’ from Madras at the Swami’s instance. Brahma Samaj opened its first branch in Karnataka at Bangalore in 1866
followed by branches at Mangalore and Mysore. Kudmul Ranga Rao, who started Depressed Classes Mission at Mangalore in 1897 was influenced by Brahma Samaj. Sir Narayan Chandavarkar of the Prarthana Samaj hailed from Honavar in Uttara Kannada. Arya Samaj started functioning in Mysore State by early 1880s and a branch was opened at Mangalore in 1919 and at Bangalore in 1922. The modern religious movements have not only played an important role in social reforms such as work against untouchability and emancipation of women but also in promotion of moral education. Men like Sir Sheshadri Iyer, the Dewan of Mysore were
influenced by these movements and enacted laws aimed at social reform.

Referecne:www.kannadasiri.kar.nic.in

Urbanisation of karnataka

Urbanisation of karnataka

Karnataka stood 10th in the level of urbanisation in 1981
census and has moved to 11th rank in 1991 census among the States and
Union Territories in India. The rate of urbanisation is faster in Karnataka
when compared to other states of India. This trend has been growing from
1901 till 1991. In the 1991 census, there are 306 places in the State classified
as towns as against 281 towns in 1981 census. The State is becoming steadily
urbanised. It has a larger proportion of its population living in urban areas,
than the average for the country as a whole. The districtwise total number of
towns as per 1991 census was as follows: Bangalore 33; Bangalore Rural 9;
Belgaum 22; Bellary 12; Bidar 5; Bijapur 18; Chikmagalur 10; Chitradurga
10; Dakshina Kannada 27; Dharwad 20; Gulbarga 19; Hassan 13; Kodagu 9;
Kolar 15; Mandya 11; Mysore 18; Raichur 13; Shimoga 16; Tumkur 12 and
Uttara Kannada 14.

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Density of Population of Karnataka

Density of Population of Karnataka

The number of persons for every square kilometre area is called the density of population. The density of population in the state was 235 in 1991 as against 194 in 1981 which is less than that of the country (267 in 1991 as against 230 in 1981). Among 35 states and union territories in the country Karnataka occupies the 20th position in density population in 1991 and 2001. According to 2001 census Bangalore District has registered the highest density of 2,985 persons per sq. km and the lowest of 132 persons per sq.km. in Kodagu and Uttara Kannada district. The density of population in the urban areas of Bangalore district in 1991 was 10,375 per sq km and next comes Mysore district which has a density of 5,508 per sq. km. in the urban areas. Apart from Bangalore, Dakshina Kannada, Mysore, Mandya, harwad, Bangalore Rural, Belgaum, Kolar and Davangere districts have a density of more than 300 persons per sq. km. Those with a density between 250 and 300 were Haveri, Udupi, Bidar, Hassan and Bagalkot districts; with a density etween 200 and 250 were Bidar, Chitradurga, Hassan and Tumkur. Raichur, Tumkur, Bellary, Gadag, Mysore and Mandya districts have an urban density of more than 5,000.

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Sex Ratio of karnataka

Sex Ratio of karnataka

The sex ratio is defined as the number of females for every 1000 males in a given area. The sex ratio of population in 2001 was 965. The rural sex ratio was 977 and that of the urban ratio was 942, as compared to the figures to that of 1991 (Rural 975, Urban 930; Total 961). The sex ratio has almost remained the same for the total population of he state with a slight decrease in the number of females whereas in the rural areas the ratio was higher and in the urban areas it was a little less during 2001. During 2001, the district-wise sex ratio was as follows: Bagalkot 980, Bangalore 908; Bangalore Rural 955; Belgaum 960; Bellary 969; Bidar 949; Bijapur 950; Chamarajanagar 971; Chikmagalur 984; Chitradurga 955; Dakshina Kannada 1022; Davanagere 952; Dharwad 949; Gadag 969; Gulbarga 966; ssan 1004; Haveri 944; Kodagu 996; Kolar 972; Koppal 983; Mandya 986; Mysore 964; Raichur 983; Shimoga 978; Tumkur 967; Udupi 1130, and Uttara Kannada 971. These figures indicate that the sex ratio in the districts of Bangalore, Bangalore Rural, Belgaum, Bidar, Bijapur, Chitradurga, Davanagere, Dharwad, Haveri and Mysore was less than the tate’s average and Udupi has a higher sex ratio than other areas.

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Demography of Karnataka

Demography of Karnataka

According to 1991 census, Karnataka with an area of 1,91,791 sq. km. has a population of 44,977,201 with 22,951,917 males and 22,025,284 females. Karnataka State ranks 9th among the 28 States and 7 Union Territories in the Indian Union both in respect of area and population as per 2001 census. Karnataka’s population constitute 5.1% of India’s opulation. As can be seen from the trends in growth of population, there was a fall in growth and a decrease during 1911-21 due to epidemics, plague and influenza. In 30 years between 1901 and 1931 the population increased only bout a million and a half. The rate of growth of population has accelerated from 1951 onwards. The percentage growth rate of population during 1981-91 was 21.12 (Rural 17.65 and Urban 29.62) as against 26.76 during 1971-81 (Rural 19.07 and Urban 50.65). Among the districts, during 1981-91, Bangalore District has recorded the highest growth rate of 38.44 per cent and Kodagu has registered the lowest growth rate of 5.57 percent. The district-wise population of the State in 1991 and the percentage of decennial increase between 1981 and 1991 are as follows: Bangalore 8,39,162- 38.44%; Bangalore Rural 16,73,194-15.23%; Belgaum 35,83,606-20.24%; Bellary 18,90,092-26.92%; Bidar 12,55,799-26.12%; Bijapur 29,27,900-21.91%, Chikmagalur 10,17,283-10.37%; Chitradurga 21,80,443-22.67%; Dakshina 82 A Handbook of Karnataka Kannada 26,94,264-13.31%; Dharwad 35,03,150-18.93%; Gulbarga 25,82,169- 24.12%; Hassan 15,69,684-15.57%; Kodagu 4,88,455-5.75%; Kolar 22,16,889- 16.34%; Mandya 16,44,374-15.96%; Mysore 31,65,018-21.92%; Raichur 23,09,887-29.49%; Shimoga 19,09,663-15.27%; Tumkur 23,05,819-16.58% and Uttara Kannada 12,20,260-13.83%.
The District-wise population table of 27 districts of the state in 2001 is given at the end of the chapter.

 

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Chief Ministers of Karnataka

Sl. No. Name Party Period
1 Chengalaraya Reddy Congress October 25, 1947 – March 30, 1952
2 Kengal Hanumanthaiah Congress March 30, 1952 – August 19, 1956
3 Kadidal Manjappa Congress August 19, 1956 – October 31, 1956
4 S. Nijalingappa Congress November 1, 1956 – April 10, 1957
5 S. Nijalingappa Congress April 10, 1957 – May 16, 1958
6 B.D. Jatti Congress May 16, 1958 – March 9, 1962
7 S.R. Kanthi Congress March 14, 1962 – June 20, 1962
8 S. Nijalingappa Congress June 21, 1962 – March 3, 1967
9 S. Nijalingappa Congress March 3, 1967 – May 29, 1968
10 Veerendra Patil Congress May 29, 1968 – March 18, 1971
Presidents Rule March 19, 1971 – March 20, 1972
11 D. Devaraj Urs Congress March 20, 1972 – December 31, 1977
Presidents Rule December 31, 1977 – February 28, 1978
12 D. Devaraj Urs Congress February 28, 1978 – January 7, 1980
13 R. Gundu Rao Congress January 12, 1980 – January 6, 1983
14 Ramakrishna Hegde Janata Party January 10, 1983 – December 29, 1984
15 Ramakrishna Hegde Janata Party March 8, 1985 – February 13, 1986
16 Ramakrishna Hegde Janata Party February 16, 1986 – August 10, 1988
17 S.R. Bommai Janata Party August 13, 1988 – April 21, 1989
Presidents Rule April 21, 1989 – November 30, 1989
18 Veerendra Patil Congress November 30, 1989 – October 10, 1990
Presidents Rule October 10, 1990 – October 17, 1990
19 S. Bangarappa Congress October 17, 1990 – November 19, 1992
20 M. Veerappa Moily Congress November 19, 1992 – December 11, 1994
21 H.D. Deve Gowda Janata Dal December 11, 1994 – May 31, 1996
22 J.H. Patel Janata Dal May 31, 1996 – October 07, 1999
23 S.M. Krishna Congress October 11, 1999 – May 28, 2004
24 Dharam Singh Congress

[Congress-JD(s) coalition]

May 28, 2004 – Jan 27, 2006
24 H D Kumaraswamy JD(s)

[BJP-JD(s) coalition]

Feb 3, 2006 –  October 8, 2007
25 Presidents Rule October 9, 2007 – November 8, 2007
26 B S Yeddyurappa BJP

[BJP-JD(s) coalition]

November 12, 2007 – November 19, 2007
27 Presidents Rule November 20, 2007 – May 29, 2008
28 B S Yeddyurappa BJP May 30, 2008 –
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Awards in Kannada Literature

Gnanapitha Award Winners

1. K.V. Puttappa (1967), 2. D.R.Bendre (1973), K. Shivaram Karanth (1977), 4. Masti Venkatesh lyengar (1983). 5. V.K.Gokak (1990), 6. U.R. Ananthamurthy (1994). 7. Girish Karnad (1998) Karnataka Ratna Award Winners
K.V. Puttappa and Dr. Rajkumar (1992); S. NIjalingappa (1999), C.N.R. Rao (2000).

Central Sahitya Academy Award Winners

1. K.V. Puttappa (1955), 2. R.S. Mugali (1958), 3. D.R.Bendre (1958), 4. K. Shivarama Karanth (1959), 5. V.K.Gokak (1960), 6. A.R. Krishna Shastri (1961), 7. Devudu Narasimhashastri (1962), 8. B. Puttaswamaiah(1964), 9. * contributed by C. Sitaram S.V. Ranganna (1956), 10. P.T. Narasimhachar (1966), 11. D.V. Gundappa (1967), 12. Masti Venkatesh lyengar (1968), 13. H. Thipperudraswamy (1969), 14. Sham.Ba.Joshi (1970), 15. Shriranga (1971), 16. S.S. Bhoosanuru Matha (1972), 17. V. Seetharamaiah (1973), 18. M. Gopalakrishna Adiga (1974), 19.

S.L. Bhyrappa (1975), 20. M. Shivaram (1976), 21. K.S. Narasimhaswamy (1977), 22. B.G.L.Swamy (1978), 23. A.N. Murthi Rao (1979), 24. Goruru Ramaswamy lyengar (1980), 25. Channaveera Kanavi (1981), 26. Chaduranga (1982), 27. Yashavantha Chittala (1983), 28. G.S. Shivarudrappa (1984), 29. Ta.Ra.Su (Subbarao) (1985), 30. Vyasaraya Ballala (1986), 31. K.P.Purnachandra Tejasvi (1987), 32. Shankara Mokashi Punekar (1988), 33. Devanuru Mahadeva (1989), 34. S.V. Parmeshwara Bhatta (1990), 35. Ha.Ma.Nayak (1990), 36.
Chandrashekara Kambara{1991), 37. H.S.Venkatesha Murthi (1991), 38. Su.Ram.Yakkundi (1992), 39. Saraswathi Gajanana Risbud (1992), 40. P.Lankesh (1993), 41. Kirthinatha Kurthakoti (1993), 42. Girish Kamad (1994), 43. Pradhan Gurudatta (1994), 44. Thippeswamy (1995), 45. G.S.Amura (1996), 46. M.Chidananda Murthy (1997), 47. B.C.Ramachandra Sharma (1998), 48. D.R. Nagaraj (posthumous 1999) Shantinatha Desai (posthumous 2000), L.S.Sheshagiri Rao (2001); Sujana (2002); K.V.Subbanna (2003), Geetha Nagabhushana (2004).

Pampa Award Winners

1. K.V. Puttappa (1987), 2. T.N. Shreekanthaiya (1988), 3. K. Shivaram Karanth(1989), 4. S.S. Bhoosanurumath (1990), 5. P.T. Narasimhachar (1991), 6.A.N. Murthi Rao (1992), 7. M. opalakrishna Adiga (1993), 8. Sediyapu
Krishna Bhatta (1994), 9. K.S. Narasimhaswamy (1995), 10. M.M. Kalburgi (1996), 11. G.S. Shivarudrappa (1997), 12. D. Javare Gowda (1998), 13. Chennaveera Kanavi (1999), 14. L. Basavaraju (2000), 15. K.P.Purnachandra Tegasvi (2001), 16. M.Chidananda Murthy (2002) and 17. Chandrashekara Kambara (2003).

Rajyothsava Award Winners

To bring progress in different aspects of culture of the State, the Government is recognising the good work done by the Scholars Artistes, Social workers, Lawyers, Doctors and Institutions etc., and is encouraging them with Rajyothsava Awards, on the Rajyothsava Day, every year. Upto 2004 a total number of 1466 have been honoured with this Rajyothsava Awards. Dana Chintamani Atthimabbe Award Winners l.T. Sunandamma (1995), 2. Shantadevi Malavada (1996), 3. Vaidehi (1997), 4. Kamala Hampana (1998), 5. Mallika (1999) 6. Jayalakshmi Srinivasan (2000), 7. Sara Abubakar (2001), 8. Geetha Nagabhushana (2002) and 9. Shylaja Uduchana (2003).

Jaanapada Shree Award Winners

1. S.K. Karim Khan (1994), 2. Kamsale Mahadevaiah (1995), Yedramanahalli Doddabharamappa (1996), 4. Phakirawa Gudisagara (1997), 5. Hiriyadka Gopala Rao (1998), 6. Sukri Bomma Gowda (1999), 7. Takkalike
Vitthala Rao (2000), 8. Hamgi Mudimallappa (2001), 9. M.R.Basappa (2002), 10. Chittani Ramachandra Hegde (2003).

Karnataka Sahitya Academy Awards

Karnataka Sahitya Academy is sanctioning Annual Awards to those renowned litterateurs and other personalities in recognistion of their services towards promotion of literature and culture. Since its inception, Academy has honoured

Tulu Language and Literature

Tulu is one of the rich and ancient languages of the Dravidian family. Tulu speaking people are called Tulavas mostly found in Dakshina Kannada and Kasargodu district of Kerala. Tulunadu is bounded by the Kalyanapura river in the North, Arabian sea in the west, Western ghats in the east and the Payaswini/Chandragiri river in the south. Tulu has its own linguistic pecularities and shares a number of common features with Kannada and other Dravidian languages. Tulu has a very vast folk tradition which has its own pecularities. Folklore in Tulu is mainly found in the form of Paddanas, Sandi, Kabita, Uralu, Padipu, Nritya-padya, Gadi, Ogatu, Jogula, Ajjikathe etc., Tulu Brahmins are generally educated people in the Vedas and Shastras. Their folk songs are based on the episodes in the epics ‘Ramayana’ and ‘Mahabharatha’. Among the lower castes and untouchables the Bhuta dance tradition is prevalent. When compared with other Dravidian languages, Tulu has a very little classical literature. During the past 150 years, Tulu has adopted the Kannada script for its literary works. Even though the works of Tulu literature initiated by the Basel Mission Christians were only translations of the teachings of Christianity in the beginning, a few important  works like the Tulu English Dictionary etc., were published later. Collections of their folk songs etc., and
histories of Dakshina Kannada and Tulava Culture were also published. Works on Tulu Grammar, dialect and a doctoral theses on the structure of Tulu verb transformational analysis were published in the latter half of the Twentieth

Century. The Kerala and Karnataka governments have helped in developing lexicons and text books of Tulu. Many Kannada plays of Yakshagana and many religious works also have been translated into Tulu. Notable early writers of Tulu literature are Sankayya Bhagawat, Sheenappa Hegade, K.B. Narayana Shetty and M.V.Hegde. S.U.Phaniyadi established the Tulu Mahasabha in Udupi

in 1928. This gave great boost to Tulu literature and culture. It led to a linguisticcum- cultural movement in Tulu. The Tulu theatre and drama developed during this period. K.Doddanna Shetty,

K.N.Tailor, Rama Kirodiyan, U.R. Chandar, K.B. Bhandari, Machendranath, Ramananda Churya, Sitaram Kulal, P.S.Rao, Vishu Kumar etc. were the pioneers of the Tulu Theatre. The beauty of Tulu idioms, proverbs and expressions is very well represented in the social activities of this period. Yakshaganas, the spectacular folk dances of Karnataka are becoming popular even in Tulu nowa- days. In recent years, Tulu poets like Amrita Someswara, Anatharam Bangady, Purushottama Punja, Nityananda Karanth, Ashok A. Shetty, K.Shekar.V.Shetty,
G.Bayaru, Madhukumar and A.N.Shetty have composed Tulu Yakshagana epics. There are some organisation which are working for the propagation of Tulu language and culture. Tulu Koota of Mangalore is one such organisation. A few Tulu journals are also being brought out. Many other poets have made a name in Tulu literature. The notable among them are Mandara Keshava Bhat (his ‘Mandara Ramayana’ is a wonderful epic), Venkataraju Puninchittaya, P.V.Acharya, Ramakrishna Achar, Dumappa Master, Vamana Nandavar, K.V.Ravi, Tilakanath Manjeshwar, Ratna Kumar, Yeshwantha Bolur, Bhaskar Rao, Sitaram Kulal, Sitaram Alwa and Bannanje. Three Tulu classics in Grantha script, each of them more than 200 years old have been found in palm manuscripts. They are ‘Tulu Bhagavato’ (by Vishnu Tunga) ‘Kaveri’ and a prose work ‘Devi Mahatme’.
Many scholars are engaged in research on Tulu language, culture and folklore of the Tuluvas. They are D.N.S.Bhat, S.N.Bhat, M.Rama, S. Mallikadevi, U.P. Upadhyaya, William Madta, T. Gopalakrishna Bhatta, Sediyapu Krishna Bhatta, A. Acharya, Venkataraju Punincha ttaya, Vivek Rai, Amrita Someshwar, Sushila Upadhyaaya, Chinnappa Gowda, K. Padmanabha Kekhunaya and other young scholars. Some of the works on Tulu linguistics and folklore brought out are: ‘A comparitive study of Tulu Dialects’, Tulava Darshana’, ‘Folk epics of Tulunadu’, ‘Tulu Janapada Sahitya’, ‘Bhutaaraadhane’, Tulu Baduku’, ‘Paaddanagalu’, ‘Janapada Aaradhane Mattu Rangakale’, ‘Karaavali Jaanapada’, etc. Tulu Academy was founded by the State govt. in 1994. Research on Tulu language, folklore and history is carried on in the Kannada department of the Mangalore University and the Rashtrakavi Govinda Pai Research Centre at M.G.M.College, Udupi. Scholars in Pune, Annamalai and Trivandrum Universities are engaged in research in Tulu language. The Govinda

Pai Centre of Udupi has compiling a multi-volume on modern Tulu Lexicon.

Tulu Academy Award Winners

1995-96 : Kedambadi Jattappa Rai and Mandara Keshava Bhat; 1996-97: Ku.Shi. Haridasa Bhat; Keranji Seetharama Alwa, Mijar Annappa, B. Rama Kerodian; 1997-98 : Sunitha M. Shetty, Suryanatha U. Kamath,
K.N. Tailor, Malpe Shankaranarayana Samaga; 1998-99 : Amrita Someshwara, Venkataraj Punichittaya, Mankude Sanjeeva Shetty, M. Leelavathi; 1999-2000 : U.P. Upadhyaya, Kudakaii Vishwanatha Rai, Kolluru Ramachandra Rao, Sadananda Suvarna; 2000-2001 : Sushila Upadhyaya, P.S. Rao, B.S. Rao,
316 A Handbook of Karnataka Phalinche Ramaiah Shetty. 2001-02: K.V.Ramesh, B.A.Viveka Rai, Malpe
Ramadasa Samaja, Mahendranatha, Pundeswara. 2002-03: K.G.Vasantamadhava, Erya Lakshminarayana Alwa, B.Shinnappa Bhandari, Sahitya Balaga, Mumbai (Institutional)

Reference:  http//kannadasiri.kar.nic.in

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